Bantuan:VisualEditor/Panduan pengguna

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:VisualEditor/User guide and the translation is 29% complete.

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Jika anda ingin mencuba VisualEditor tanpa menyunting rencana, anda boleh berbuat demikian dengan bebas di halaman ini di mana anda bebas untuk mencuba. Anda tidak memerlukan akaun untuk menggunakannya VisualEditor di halaman itu.

Membuka VisualEditor

To edit a page using VisualEditor, click on the "Sunting" tab at the top of the page.

Membuka laman untuk penyuntingan akan mengambil beberapa saat; ia mengambil masa lebih lama jika sesebuah laman itu panjang.

Clicking on the "Sunting sumber" tab will open the classic wikitext source editor.

VisualEditor edit tab-ms.png

You can also open VisualEditor by clicking on the "sunting" link on each section.
VisualEditor - Section edit links-en.png

Getting started: the VisualEditor toolbar

Screenshot of the VisualEditor toolbar
Palang VisualEditor dapat kelihatan pada bahagian atas skrin apabila anda mula menyunting dengan VisualEditor. Ia menampilkan beberapa ikon biasa:

VisualEditor - Toolbar - Undo-redo.png
Buat asal dan Buat semula suntingan yang telah anda lakukan.

VisualEditor Toolbar Headings-ms.png
Headings pull-down menu: allows you to change how the paragraph is formatted. To change the style of a paragraph, put your caret in the paragraph and select an item in this menu (you don't have to highlight any text). Section titles are formatted "Judul", and subsections are "Judul 2", "Judul 3", and so on. The normal format for text is "Perenggan".

VisualEditor Toolbar Formatting-ms.png

Formatting: Clicking the "A" opens a menu. For any item to have an effect, you must have first selected (highlighted) some text.

  • The "Tebal" item (B) bolds the selected text.
  • The "Condong" item (I) italicizes the selected text.
  • The "Superskrip" item (x2) causes the selected text to appear smaller than surrounding text and to be slightly higher than the surrounding text.
  • The "Subskrip" item (x2) causes the selected text to appear smaller than surrounding text and slightly lower than the surrounding text.
  • The "Garis lorek" item (S) adds a solid bar through the selected text.
  • The "Kod komputer" item (a set of curly brackets: {}) changes the font of the selected text to a monospaced font, which sets it apart from surrounding (proportionally spaced) text.
  • The "Garis bawah" item (U) adds a solid line beneath the selected text.
  • The "Bahasa" item (Aあ) allows you to label the language (for example, Japanese) and direction (for example, right-to-left) of the selected text.
  • The final item (VisualEditor MediaWiki theme clear icon bitmap.png), called "Padamkan penggayaan", removes all character formatting from the selected text, including links

VisualEditor - Toolbar - Linking.png
Linking tool: The chain is the linking tool. Clicking on it (usually after selecting some text) opens the link dialog.

VisualEditor - Cite Pulldown.png
Petik menu: The "Petik" menu is used to add inline citations (also called "footnotes" or "references"). All projects have access to "Asas" reference formatting and the ability to "Guna semula" citations, using this menu. This menu also gives you quick access to local citation templates, if these are enabled on your wiki.

(Instructions for adding local citation templates to the Petik menu at a specific wiki are available at VisualEditor/Citation tool.)

VisualEditor citoid Cite button.png
Petik</> button: If the citoid service is enabled on your wiki, then you will see a "Petik" button instead of a Petik menu.

The citoid service tries to fill out citation templates automatically.

VisualEditor Toolbar Lists and indentation-ms.png
Lists and indentation: The first two items allow you to format text as either a "Senarai berbulet" or a "Senarai bernombor". The last two items allow you to decrease or increase the indentation level of list items.

VisualEditor Insert Menu-ms.png
Sisipkan: The "Sisipkan" menu may be different on some projects. Below is a list of all options that may appear.
  • The "Media" icon (a picture of mountains) opens the media dialog.
  • The "Galeri" icon (a set of photos) allows you to insert a gallery to the page.
  • The "Templat" icon (a puzzle piece) allows you to edit templates.
  • The "Komen" item (a speech balloon) allows you to insert comments that are not visible to readers; these comments can be seen only when in edit mode and are then indicated by an exclamation mark icon.
  • The "Rumus" icon (Σ) opens the formula inserter dialog.
  • The "Senarai rujukan" icon (three books) opens a dialog in which you can specify where will references be displayed to the reader. Usually this only needs to be done once on every page.
  • The "Hieroglif" icon (an ankh symbol - ☥) allows you to enter the hieroglyphics inserter. (See below.)

Special character insertion: The "Aksara khas" (Ω) icon on the "Sisipkan" menu, when clicked, displays a dialog showing many special characters. By clicking on a specific character, you place it into the text. These special characters include some standard symbols, accents, and mathematical symbols. (This list may be customized locally. See VisualEditor/Special characters for instructions.)
VisualEditor Toolbar SpecialCharacters-ms.png

VisualEditor More Settings-ms.png
The Pilihan laman menu is to the left of the Simpan laman button. On this menu there are options to adjust page settings, such as whether the page is a redirect, or how it is indexed; to add, edit, or delete categories; and to see, using the "Bahasa" item, the list of articles on the same subject that are in other languages. You can also switch (one-way only) from VisualEditor to the classic wikitext source editor without losing the editing work you've done.

Menyimpan perubahan

When you're done editing, click the blue "Simpan laman" button in the toolbar. If you have made no changes, the button will be disabled (grayed out). Untuk membatalkan segala perubahan penyuntingan anda, sila tutup sahaja pelayar internet anda
VisualEditor toolbar actions-ms.png

Pressing the green "Simpan laman" button opens a dialog. You can then enter a brief summary of your actions, mark your edit as minor, and add the page to your Senarai pantau. The box for the summary is the equivalent of the Ringkasan: field in the wikitext editor.

You can also review your changes using the "Semak perubahan anda" button to be sure they will work as intended before saving your changes. This is similar to the "Lihat perubahan" button in the wikitext editor.

The "Batalkan" button returns you to the page you were editing. You can save all of your changes later.

VisualEditor save dialog-ms.png

Editing links

VisualEditor - Toolbar - Linking.png
Links can be added through the "Pautan" icon (links in a chain) in the toolbar, or by using the shortcut  Ctrl+K (or  Command+K on a Mac).

If you select (highlight) text and then press the "Pautan" button, a link will be inserted using that text. For single-word links it's enough to just do it while the caret is on that word.

VisualEditor - Link editing inline 2.png
Sama ada anda menggunakan butang ataupun jalan pintas, sebuah dialog akan dibuka yang akan membolehkan anda menaip pautan. VisualEditor akan mencuba membantu dengan pautan dalaman (pautan kepada laman-laman lain Wikipedia) dengan melihat sama ada terdapat perkara yang sepadan sambil anda menaip.

VisualEditor will try to help with internal links by looking for likely matches as you begin to type.

VisualEditor link tool 2015.png
Once you have entered or selected the link, you complete the linking process by pressing  Enter, pressing the "Siap" button, or just clicking outside of the box. Your link will immediately appear on the VisualEditor page, but it will not be saved until you save the entire page.

VisualEditor - External link.png
To link to a web page on another website, the process is the similar: Choose the "External link" tab, and enter a URL in the box.

External links without labels look like this: [1]. You can add these by placing your cursor away from any word (e.g., after a space). Open the link tool by clicking on the button or pressing the shortcut keys. Type the URL in the box, and click the "Siap" button to insert the link.

VisualEditor-context menu-link tool.png
To change or remove an existing link, click within the text for that link, then press the "Pautan" icon that appears near it. The dialog will appear, for editing. (You can also get to the dialog with the  Ctrl+K keyboard shortcut.)

In the dialog, you can then change where the link goes. You can also remove the link altogether by pressing the "Buang" button in the lower left corner of the dialog. You can also open the link's target in another window by clicking on the "Buka" button. (You might want do this to check if an external link is valid.)

Editing references

For further information, see Help using citation templates or Help using citoid's Cite button

Menyunting rujukan sedia ada

VisualEditor - Editing references 1.png
To edit an existing reference, click on it where it appears in the text (usually as a bracketed number). You will see either a "Asas" icon (bookmark) or an icon (and name) for the template that was used to create this reference. Clicking on this icon will open a dialog where you can edit the reference.

VisualEditor - Editing references 6.png
If what appears is the "Asas" icon, clicking on it opens the Reference dialog, where you can edit the reference's contents.

Many wikis use templates to format references. If a template is used in your reference, then all the text in the template will be highlighted when you click on the reference information.

If a template was used and you've clicked on information in that template, then the Templat icon (puzzle piece) will appear. Click on that icon to edit the content of the template in the template mini-editor dialog.

VisualEditor - Editing References - Cite Web.png
If, instead of the "Asas" icon (bookmark), what appears when you click on a reference is an icon for a standard template for citations, then clicking on that icon will take you directly to the template mini-editor dialog.

VisualEditor - Editing references 5.png
Inside the template mini-editor, you can add or remove types of information or change current content. Only fields (template parameters) that have content are supposed to be shown initially. To add fields, click on "Tambah lebih maklumat" at the bottom of the mini-editor.

VisualEditor Apply Changes-ms.png
Click on "Gunakan perubahan" when you're done.

Re-using an existing reference

VisualEditor - Toolbar - Reference.png
Jika laman sudahpun mempunyai rujukan, anda boleh emilih untuk menggunakan petikan sedia ada, jika ia berkaitan dengan teks yang anda mahu gunakan.

Bagi mengguna semula rujukan sedia ada, letakkan kursor anda di tempat di mana anda mahu ia kelihatan dalam teks, dan petik ikon "Rujukan" icon (tanda buku) pada palang.

VisualEditor - Editing references 18.png
In the Rujukan dialog, look at the list for the reference you want to reuse, and select it. If there are many references, you can use the search box (labeled "Cari petikan sedia ada") to list only those references that include certain text.

Adding a new reference

VisualEditor - Toolbar - Reference.png
To add a citation using the "Petik" menu, place your cursor where you want to add it in the text. Then select the appropriate citation type in the menu.

Using the "Basic" citation

VisualEditor - Editing references 20.png
Anda dapat menambah, menyunting dan memformat petikan anda dalam penyunting rujukan.

You can make the reference belong to a given group, although normally this is left blank. (This option is used to display groups of references with the "Senarai rujukan" tool.)

VisualEditor Template Insert Menu-ms.png
Sekiranya anda menambah rujukan baru dan anda juga mahu memasukkan templat bersama-samanya, petik ikon Transklusi (kepingan susun suai gambar) ("Transclusion" dalam gambar sebelah) pada palang penyunting rujukan.

VisualEditor - Editing references 9.png
Then, look for the template you want to use, add it and edit it as you would any other template. (See the Editing templates section, below, if you need more information about templates.)

After you're done editing your new template, click on "Gunakan perubahan" to return to the Reference editor, and "Gunakan perubahan" again to return to the page you're editing.

VisualEditor References List Insert Menu-ms.png
Jika tidak ada senarai rujukan pada laman (misalnya, anda menambah rujukan pertama pada laman), anda perlu menambah rujukan itu agar teks rujukan anda dapat dipaparkan.

Place the cursor where you want to display the references list (usually at the bottom of the page), open the "Sisipkan" menu and click the "Senarai rujukan" icon (three books).

VisualEditor references list-ms.png
If you are using several groups of references, which is relatively rare, you can specify the group in this dialog. Only the references that belong to that group will be displayed here.

The final step in the References list dialog is to click "Sisipkan".

Using standard cite templates

VisualEditor - Editing References - Cite Pulldown.png
Your local wiki may have added extra citation templates to this menu. This offers quick access to the most-used citation templates. (Instructions for adding extra citation templates to your local wiki are available at VisualEditor/Citation tool.)

VisualEditor - Editing references - Cite book required fields.png
Clicking on a template icon such as "Cite book" will take you into the template mini-editor for that template. Important information fields may be marked with an asterisk. While the most common fields will be shown, not all of them are required.

VisualEditor - Editing references - Add parameter.png
To add more parameters, scroll down in the template mini-editor and click on the "Tambah lebih maklumat" option.

Click on "Sisipkan" when you're done.

Editing images and other media files

Menyunting imej

Untuk menambah imej (ataupun fail media lain) pada laman, petik ikon "Media" pada palang (gambar gunung).
VisualEditor Media Insert Menu-ms.png

Clicking the "Media" icon opens a dialog that automatically searches Wikimedia Commons and your local wiki for media files related to the title of the page you're editing.

Anda dapat mencari fail media lain dengan menukar teks dalam kotak gelintar dialog.

Petik lakaran kecil bagi memilih fail.

This places the image onto the page you are editing.

VisualEditor - Media editing 2.png

After the image you selected is inserted into the page, another dialog will open. This dialog allows you to add and edit the caption of the image. The caption can contain formatting and links.
VisualEditor - Media editing 6.png

The media dialog also allows you to add alternative text captions, to help users who use screen readers, or who have disabled image display.
Media editing 7.png

You can also set various parameters for the image in the "Tetapan selanjutnya" window. These include the alignment, the type, and size of the image.
VisualEditor - Media editing 8.png

Apabila sudah selesai, petik "Kenakan perubahan" ("Apply changes") bagi menutup dialog dan pulang kepada laman penyunting.
VisualEditor Apply Changes-ms.png

For an existing image, you can add or edit a caption or other settings by clicking on the image, then clicking on the "Media" icon that appears below the picture.

You can resize an existing image by clicking on it, then moving the resize icon (the two-headed arrow on the bottom left).

You can also drag and drop an image to a place higher or lower on the page.

VisualEditor - Media editing 3.png

Editing media galleries

To edit an existing gallery in VisualEditor, click that gallery. Then, near the bottom of the gallery, click the gallery icon (a set of photos). This brings up the gallery editor, with the full list of images included in the gallery.
VisualEditor - Gallery2.png
The gallery editor is currently a simple box that allows you to edit existing galleries using wikitext markup. To add a new image to an existing gallery, type the file name, followed by a bar (|) and the caption for that image. You must put each image in the gallery on its own line. You can also edit this list to remove or rearrange images or to change captions.

When you click the "Siap" button, you will exit the gallery editor. You should then see your changes, with the gallery as it will now appear to readers.

Remember that exiting the gallery editor does not save your changes. As with other changes made using VisualEditor, you must save the entire page in order to save your work.

VisualEditor - Gallery3.png

Editing templates

To add a new template to a page, place your cursor where you want the template to be inserted, and click on the "Templat" icon (puzzle piece) in the "Sisipkan" menu.
VisualEditor Template Insert Menu-ms.png

Start typing the name of the template you want to insert. When you see it on the list, click on its name. Then click "Tambah templat".
VisualEditor - Template editing 4.png

You can also edit templates that are already on the page by clicking on them to select them (they turn blue), and then clicking on the "Templat" icon (puzzle piece) that appears.
VisualEditor - Template editing 1.png

Adding a new template or opening an existing one opens the "Transklusi" dialog. If the template has been updated to contain TemplateData information, then the dialog will show a list of individual (named) parameters. If the template doesn't contain TemplateData, then a link to documentation for the template will be shown in the dialog.

If the template does not use named parameters, then use numbers as the name for each nameless parameter. The first un-named parameter is named 1, the second is named 2, and so forth.

VisualEditor - Template editing 2.png

For an existing template, you can edit the parameters already listed in the dialog, and you can add parameters by clicking "Tambah lebih maklumat", at the very bottom of the dialog.
VisualEditor - Template editing 3.png

Apabila sesebuah templat memuatkan templat-templat lain, templat-templat ini (subtemplat) akan tampil sebagai parameter. Subtemplat ini boleh disunting ataupun dibuang dengan memetik nama subtemplat berkaitan.

Subtemplat-subtemplat baru ditambah dengan cara yang digunakan untuk menambah parameter. Anda mungkin perlu menyemak dokumentasi templat bagi memastikan yang subtempat disokong.

VisualEditor - Template editing 5.png

Apabila selesai, petik "Kenakan perubahan" bagi menutup dialog dan pulang kepada penyunting laman.
VisualEditor Apply Changes-ms.png

Substituting templates

Apabila sesebuah templat perlu diganti, taip subst: (termasuk titik tindih) sebelum nama templat.

Penyiapan automatik ("Autocompletion") tidak berfungsi dengan subst:; jika anda perlukan penyiapan automatik, tambah subst: hanya selepas mencari templat yang anda mahu.

Then, click the green "Tambah templat" button.

VisualEditor - Template editing 7.png

Add any parameters as usual and "Gunakan perubahan".
VisualEditor - Template editing 6.png

Anda tidak akan melihat pengembangan tempalt semasa fasa permulaan ini.
VisualEditor - Template editing 8.png

Editing lists

VisualEditor Toolbar Lists and indentation-ms.png
You can use VisualEditor to create lists, or to change the format of an existing list. There are two types of lists: unordered (bullet) and ordered (numbered).

To start a new list, just click on one of the two menu items shown here. Or, if you already have typed the list (on separate lines), select (highlight) the list you have typed, then click on one of the menu items.

VisualEditor lists 1 unordered bullet.png
VisualEditor lists 2 ordered numbered.png
Shown here are examples of the two types of lists: unordered (bullet) and ordered (numbered).

VisualEditor lists 3 select to indent.png
If you want to change the indentation level of part of an existing list, select the part of the list that you want to change.

VisualEditor lists 4 indentation menu.png
Then use the menu, or press the Tab key. (The Tab key increases indentation; use the shift key plus the Tab key to decrease indentation)

VisualEditor lists after indenting.png
Here is the result of increased indentation.

VisualEditor lists mixed.png
You can even mix ordered (numbered) and unordered (bullet) lists, if the list items have different indentations.

Editing tables

You can use VisualEditor to insert and change tables.

You can even import a table by dragging a comma-separated value (.csv) file from your computer into an open editing window.

VisualEditor table editing add and remove columns.png
You can add or delete a column or a row.

To add contents to an empty cell, or to change existing contents, double-click inside that cell.

Editing categories

VisualEditor category item-ms.png
To edit categories, on the "Pilihan laman" menu, click the "Kategori" item.

VisualEditor category editing-ms.png
Clicking on "Kategori" opens a dialog that lists existing categories and allows you to add new ones, and to delete existing categories.

You also have the option of setting or changing the general (default) sorting key, which determines where the page appears when listed with other pages in the same category.

For example, the default sorting key for the article "George Washington" is "Washington, George". In the category "Presidents of the United States", the article is listed under the letter "W", not the letter "G".

VisualEditor - Category editing 3.png
To add a category for a page, type the name of the category into the field "Tambah kategori". As you type, VisualEditor will search for possible matching, existing categories. You can either select an existing category, or you can add a category that doesn't yet have its own category page. (Until that category page is created, your new category will show as a red link after you save all your editing changes.)

VisualEditor - Category editing 2.png
To remove an existing category, click on it and click on the "Buang" icon (trash can) in the dialog that opens.

Clicking on a category also allows you to specify a sorting key for that specific category. Such a sorting key overrides the default sorting key.

VisualEditor Apply Changes-ms.png
Click "Gunakan perubahan" when you're done editing categories to return to the page editor.

Editing page settings

VisualEditor page settings item-ms.png
To edit a page's settings, click to open the "Pilihan laman" menu, in the toolbar, and select the "Tetapan halaman" button.

VisualEditor Page Settings-ms.png
The "Tetapan halaman" button opens a dialog that shows several options.

VisualEditor Page Settings Redirects-ms.png
You can make a page a redirect to another page by checking the "Lencongkan laman ini ke" checkbox, and then typing the name of the page to which you want to send the reader who tries to go to the page that you're editing.

At the bottom is the option to prevent page renames from updating this redirect. This is very rarely used.

VisualEditor Page Settings TOC-ms.png
Anda boleh mengubah paparan Jadual Isi Kandungan dalam halaman dengan memilih salah satu daripada tiga butang yang berikut. Pilihan asali ialah "Jika perlu" yang memaparkan Jadual Isi Kandungan jika terdapat tiga tajuk ke atas.

VisualEditor Page Settings Edit Links-ms.png
You can make a page not show edit links next to each section header by checking this checkbox.

VisualEditor Apply Changes-ms.png
Click "Gunakan perubahan" when you're done editing the Pilihan laman to return to the page editor.

Editing mathematical formulae

To add a new mathematical formula to the page, place your cursor where you want it to be inserted, and click on the "Rumus" icon ("Σ") in the "Sisipkan" menu on the toolbar.
VisualEditor Formula Insert Menu-ms.png

A window will open in which you can type the formula, using LaTeX syntax. VisualEditor will update the formula as you type it, so you can see how it will look as you make changes. Once you are happy with the formula, click the "Siap" button.
VisualEditor formula-ms.png

To edit an existing mathematical formula on the page, click on it and then click on the "Σ" icon that appears. This will open up the formula window, where you make changes.
VisualEditor - editing existing mathematical formula.png

Editing poems and other special items

Some items, such as association lists, poems, and musical scores, are not yet fully supported by VisualEditor. In most cases, the existing items can be edited, but new ones cannot be inserted in VisualEditor. Until they are fully supported, you can copy an existing one from another page, or edit the source wikitext directly.

You can not add an automatic signature or datestamp to a page in VisualEditor.

Keyboard shortcuts

Many editors are used to entering wikitext directly, especially bold, italics and wikilinks. Keyboard shortcuts allow to quickly insert similar formatting without having to use toolbar items. Here are the common general shortcuts in VisualEditor:

Jalan pintas PC Tindakan Jalan pintas Mac

 Ctrl+B Tebal  Cmd+B

 Ctrl+I Condong (Italik)  Cmd+I

 Ctrl+K Masukkan pautan  Cmd+K

 Ctrl+X Kerat  Cmd+X

 Ctrl+C Salin  Cmd+C

 Ctrl+V Tampal  Cmd+V

 Ctrl+Z Undur kembali  Cmd+Z