Manuel:Développement d'extensions

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Gnome-preferences-other.svg Extensions:Manual:Extensions DéveloppementManual:Developing extensions Extension "Tag"Manual:Tag extensions Manuel:Fonctions d'analyseManual:Parser functions Points d’accrocheManual:Hooks Pages spécialesManual:Special pages Manuel:HabillageManual:Skins Manuel:Mots magiquesManual:Magic words APIAPI:Extensions
Extensions MediaWiki

Chaque extension se compose de trois parties :

  1. Installateur
  2. Exécution
  3. Emplacement

Une extension minimale se compose de trois fichiers, une pour chaque partie :

MyExtension/extension.json
Stocke les instructions de l'installateur. Le nom du fichier doit être "extension.json". (Pour les versions antérieurs à MédiaWiki 1.25 les instructions d'installation se trouvent dans un fichier MyExtension/MyExtension.php nommé d'après l'extension. Plusieurs extensions peuvent avoir des fonctionnalités rétro-compatibles dans ce fichier PHP.)
MyExtension/MyExtension_body.php
Stocke le code d'exécution pour l'extension. Le nom de fichier "MonExtension_body.php" est conventionnel mais non requis. Si votre extension est complexe et implique plusieurs fichiers PHP, vous devriez suivre la convention de placer son code d'implantation dans un sous-répertoire nommé MyExtension/includes (bien que les extensions Exemple et BoilerPlate ne suivent pas cette convention). Par exemple, regardez l'extension Template:$1
MyExtension/i18n/*.json
Stocke l'information d'emplacement de l'extension.
Initialement, les extensions étaient des fichiers uniques et vous pourrez encore trouver quelques exemples de ce style déprécié.

Lorsque vous développez une extension, remplacer "MonExtension" ci-dessus avec le nom de votre extension. Use UpperCamelCase names for its directory and PHP file(s); this is the general file naming convention.[1] (The BoilerPlate extension is a good starting point for your extension. You can also consider using MWStew for generating your extension boilerplate. Also check out the cookiecutter template for MediaWiki extensions on GitHub.)

The three parts of an extension, setup, execution, and, localisation as well as extension types and licensing and publishing your extension are described in the following sections of this page.

While developing, you may want to disable caching by setting $wgMainCacheTypeManual:$wgMainCacheType = CACHE_NONE and $wgCacheDirectoryManual:$wgCacheDirectory = false, otherwise system messages and other changes may not show up.

Setup

Your goal in writing the setup portion is to consolidate set up so that users installing your extension need do nothing more than include the setup file in their LocalSettings.phpManual:LocalSettings.php file, like this:

wfLoadExtension( 'MyExtension' );

If you want to make your extension user configurable, you need to define and document some configuration parameters and your users' setup should look something like this:

wfLoadExtension( 'MyExtension' );
$wgMyExtensionConfigThis = 1;
$wgMyExtensionConfigThat = false;

To reach this simplicity, your setup file needs to accomplish a number of tasks (described in detail in the following sections):

  • register any media handler, parser function, special page, custom XML tag, and variable used by your extension.
  • define and/or validate any configuration variables you have defined for your extension.
  • prepare the classes used by your extension for autoloading
  • determine what parts of your setup should be done immediately and what needs to be deferred until the MediaWiki core has been initialized and configured
  • define any additional hooks needed by your extension
  • create or check any new database tables required by your extension.
  • set up localisation for your extension

Registering features with MediaWiki

MediaWiki lists all the extensions that have been installed on its Special:Version page. For example, you can see all the extensions installed on this wiki at Special:Version. It is good form to make sure that your extension is also listed on this page. To do this, you will need to add an entry to $wgExtensionCreditsManual:$wgExtensionCredits for each media handler, parser function, special page, custom XML tag, and variable used by your extension. The entry will look something like this:

{
	"name": "Example",
	"author": "John Doe",
	"url": "https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:Example",
	"description": "This extension is an example and performs no discernible function",
	"version": "1.5",
	"license-name": "GPL-2.0+",
	"type": "validextensionclass",
	"manifest_version": 1
}

See Manual:$wgExtensionCreditsManual:$wgExtensionCredits for full details on what these fields do. Many of the fields are optional, but it's still good practice to fill them out. The manifest_version refers to the version of the schema the extension.jsonextension.json file is written against. As of now the only supported version is 1 (MediaWiki 1.26.x and 1.27.x).

In addition to the above registration, you must also "hook" your feature into MediaWiki. The above only sets up the Special:Version page. The way you do this depends on the type of your extension. For details, please see the documentation for each type of extension:

Gnome-preferences-other.svg Extensions:Manual:Extensions DéveloppementManual:Developing extensions Extension "Tag"Manual:Tag extensions Manuel:Fonctions d'analyseManual:Parser functions Points d’accrocheManual:Hooks Pages spécialesManual:Special pages Manuel:HabillageManual:Skins Manuel:Mots magiquesManual:Magic words APIAPI:Extensions

Making your extension user configurable

If you want your user to be able to configure your extension, you'll need to provide one or more configuration variables. It is a good idea to give those variables a unique name. They should also follow MediaWiki naming conventions (e.g. global variables should begin with $wg).

For example, if your extension is named "Very silly extension that does nothing", you might want to name all your configuration variables to begin $wgVsetdn or $wgVSETDN. It doesn't really matter what you choose so long as none of the MediaWiki core begins its variables this way and you have done a reasonable job of checking to see that none of the published extensions begin their variables this way. Users won't take kindly to having to choose between your extension and some other extensions because you chose overlapping variable names.

It is also a good idea to include extensive documentation of any configuration variables in your installation notes.

Avertissement Avertissement : To avoid register_globalsRegister globals vulnerabilities, ALWAYS explicitly set all your extension's configuration variables in extension setup file. Constructs like if ( !isset( $wgMyLeetOption ) ) $wgMyLeetOption = somevalue; do not safeguard against register_globals!

Here is an example boiler plate that can be used to get started:

{
	"name": "BoilerPlate",
	"version": "0.0.0",
	"author": [
		"Your Name"
	],
	"url": "https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Extension:BoilerPlate",
	"descriptionmsg": "boilerplate-desc",
	"license-name": "MIT",
	"type": "other",
	"AutoloadClasses": {
		"BoilerPlateHooks": "BoilerPlate.hooks.php",
		"SpecialHelloWorld": "specials/SpecialHelloWorld.php"
	},
	"config": {
		"BoilerPlateEnableFoo": true
	},
	"callback": "BoilerPlateHooks::onExtensionLoad",
	"ExtensionMessagesFiles": {
		"BoilerPlateAlias": "BoilerPlate.i18n.alias.php"
	},
	"Hooks": {
		"NameOfHook": [
			"BoilerPlateHooks::onNameOfHook"
		]
	},
	"MessagesDirs": {
		"BoilerPlate": [
			"i18n"
		]
	},
	"ResourceModules": {
		"ext.boilerPlate.foo": {
			"scripts": [
				"modules/ext.boilerPlate.js",
				"modules/ext.boilerPlate.foo.js"
			],
			"styles": [
				"modules/ext.boilerPlate.foo.css"
			]
		}
	},
	"ResourceFileModulePaths": {
		"localBasePath": "",
		"remoteExtPath": "BoilerPlate"
	},
	"SpecialPages": {
		"HelloWorld": "SpecialHelloWorld"
	},
	"manifest_version": 1
}

Preparing classes for autoloading

If you choose to use classes to implement your extension, MediaWiki provides a simplified mechanism for helping PHP find the source file where your class is located. In most cases this should eliminate the need to write your own __autoload($classname) method.

To use MediaWiki's autoloading mechanism, you add entries to the AutoloadClassesManual:$wgAutoloadClasses field. The key of each entry is the class name; the value is the file that stores the definition of the class. For a simple one class extension, the class is usually given the same name as the extension, so your autoloading section might look like this (extension is named MyExtension):

{
	"AutoloadClasses": {
		"MyExtension": "MyExtension_body.php"
	}
}

The filename is relative to the directory the extension.json file is in.

Defining additional hooks

See Manual:HooksManual:Hooks.

Adding database tables

Avertissement Avertissement : If your extension is used on any production WMF-hosted wiki please follow the Schema change guide.

If your extension needs to add its own database tables, use the LoadExtensionSchemaUpdatesManual:Hooks/LoadExtensionSchemaUpdates hook. See the manual page for more information on usage.

Set up localisation

See:


Add logs

On MediaWiki, all actions by users on wiki are tracked for transparency and collaboration. See Manual:Logging to Special:LogManual:Logging to Special:Log for how to do it.

Execution

The technique for writing the implementation portion depends upon the part of MediaWiki system you wish to extend:

See also Extensions FAQExtensions FAQ, Pôle des développeursDeveloper hub

Localisation

While developing, you may want to disable both cache by setting $wgMainCacheType = CACHE_NONE and $wgCacheDirectory = false, otherwise your system message changes may not show up.

If you want your extension to be used on wikis that have a multi-lingual readership, you will need to add localisation support to your extension.

Store messages in <language-key>.json

Store message definitions in a localisation JSON-file, one for each language key your extension is translated in. The messages are saved with a message key and the message itself using standard JSON format. Each message id should be lowercase and may not contain spaces. An example you can find e.g. in extension MobileFrontend. Here is an example of a minimal JSON file (in this case en.json:

en.json

{
	"myextension-desc": "Adds the MyExtension great functionality.",
	"myextension-action-message": "This is a test message"
}

Store message documentation in qqq.json

The documentation for message keys can be stored in the JSON file for the pseudo language with code qqq. A documentation of the example above can be:

qqq.json:

{
	"myextension-desc": "The description of MyExtension used in Extension credits.",
	"myextension-action-message": "Adds 'message' after 'action' triggered by user."
}

Define messages

  • Assign each message a unique, lowercase, no space message id; e.g.uploadwizard-desc
  • For any text string displayed to the user, define a message.
  • MediaWiki supports parameterized messages and that feature should be used when a message is dependent on information generated at runtime. Parameter placeholders are specified with $n, where n represents the index of the placeholder; e.g.
"mwe-upwiz-api-warning-was-deleted": "There was a file by this name, '$1', but it was deleted and you can not reupload the file. If your file is different, try renaming it."

Define message documentation

Each message you define needs to have an associated message documentation entry Message documentation; in qqq.json e.g.

"uploadwizard-desc": "Description of extension. It refers to [//blog.wikimedia.org/blog/2009/07/02/ford-foundation-awards-300k-grant-for-wikimedia-commons/ this event], i.e. the development was paid with this $300,000 grant."

Load the localisation file

In your setup routine, define the location of your messages files (e.g. in directory i18n/):

{
	"MessagesDirs": {
		"MyExtension": [
			"i18n"
		]
	}
}

Use wfMessage in PHP

In your setup and implementation code, replace each literal use of the message with a call to wfMessage( $msgID, $param1, $param2, ... ). In classes that implement IContextSourceManual:RequestContext (as well as some others such as subclasses of SpecialPage), you can use $this->msg( $msgID, $param1, $param2, ... ) instead. Example:

wfMessage( 'myextension-addition', '1', '2', '3' )->parse()

Use mw.message in JavaScript

It's possible to use i18n functions in JavaScript too. Look at Manual:Messages APIManual:Messages API for details.

Extension types

Gnome-preferences-other.svg Extensions:Manual:Extensions DéveloppementManual:Developing extensions Extension "Tag"Manual:Tag extensions Manuel:Fonctions d'analyseManual:Parser functions Points d’accrocheManual:Hooks Pages spécialesManual:Special pages Manuel:HabillageManual:Skins Manuel:Mots magiquesManual:Magic words APIAPI:Extensions

Extensions can be categorized based on the programming techniques used to achieve their effect. Most complex extensions will use more than one of these techniques:

  • Subclassing: MediaWiki expects certain kinds of extensions to be implemented as subclasses of a MediaWiki-provided base class:
  • HooksManual:Hooks – A technique for injecting custom php code at key points within MediaWiki processing. They are widely used by MediaWiki's parser, its localization engine, its extension management system, and its page maintenance system.
  • Tag-function associationsManual:Tag extensionsXML style tags that are associated with a php function that outputs HTML code. You do not need to limit yourself to formatting the text inside the tags. You don't even need to display it. Many tag extensions use the text as parameters that guide the generation of HTML that embeds google objects, data entry forms, RSS feeds, excerpts from selected wiki articles.
  • Manuel:Mots magiquesManual:Magic words – A technique for mapping a variety of wiki text string to a single id that is associated with a function. Both variables and parser functions use this technique. All text mapped to that id will be replaced with the return value of the function. The mapping between the text strings and the id is stored in the array $magicWords. The interpretation of the id is a somewhat complex process – see Manuel:Mots magiquesManual:Magic words for more information.
    • Manuel:VariableManual:Variable – Variables are something of a misnomer. They are bits of wikitext that look like templates but have no parameters and have been assigned hard-coded values. Standard wiki markup such as {{PAGENAME}}Help:Variables or {{SITENAME}}Help:Variables are examples of variables. They get their name from the source of their value: a php variable or something that could be assigned to a variable, e.g. a string, a number, an expression, or a function return value.
    • Manuel:Fonctions d'analyseManual:Parser functions{{functionname: argument 1 | argument 2 | argument 3...}}. Similar to tag extensions, parser functions process arguments and returns a value. Unlike tag extensions, the result of parser functions is wikitext.
  • API modulesAPI:Extensions – you can add custom modules to MediaWiki's action API, that can be invoked by JavaScript, bots or third-party clients.


Support other core versions

There are two widespread conventions for supporting older versions of MediaWiki core:

  • Master: the master branch of the extension is compatible with as many old versions of core as possible. This results in a maintenance burden (backwards-compatibility hacks need to be kept around for a long time, and changes to the extension need to be tested with several versions of MediaWiki), but sites running old MediaWiki versions benefit from functionality recently added to the extension.
  • Release branches: release branches of the extension are compatible with matching branches of core, e.g. sites using MediaWiki 1.27 need to use the REL1_27 branch of the extension. (For extensions hosted on gerrit, these branches are automatically created when new versions of MediaWiki are released.) This results in cleaner code and faster development but users on old core versions do not benefit from bugfixes and new features unless they are backported manually.

Extension maintainers should declare with the compatibility policy parameter of the {{Extension}} template which convention they follow.


License

MediaWiki is an open-source project and users are encouraged to make any MediaWiki extensions under an Open Source Initiative (OSI) approved license compatible with GPL-2.0+ (Wikimedia's standard software license).

We recommend adopting one of the following compatible licenses for your projects in Gerrit:

For extensions that have a compatible license, you can request developer access to the MediaWiki source repositories for extensions. To specify the licence in code and with "license-name" a key should be used to provide it's short name, e.g. "GPL-2.0+" or "MIT" adhering to the list of identifiers at spdx.org.

Publishing

To autocategorize and standardize the documentation of your existing extension, please see Modèle:ExtensionTemplate:Extension. To add your new extension to this Wiki: Veuillez remplacer "MyExtension" avec le nom de l'extension (suivi de /fr pour la version française) :


MediaWiki est un projet open-source et les utilisateurs sont encouragés à faire leurs extensions MediaWiki{{{2}}} sous une licence compatible approuvée GPLv2 Open Source Initiative (OSI) (y compris MIT, BSD, PD). Pour les extensions qui ont une licence compatible, vous pouvez demander un accès développeur{{{2}}} sur les bases de connaissance MediaWiki pour les sources des extensions et obtenir un nouveau répertoire créé à votre attention. Vous pouvez aussi poster votre code directement sur la page de votre extension, bien que ce ne soit pas la méthode préférable.

Un développeur qui partage son code sur le wiki MediaWiki ou sur la base de connaissances des codes devrait s'attendre à :

Retour / Critique / Revues de code
Les revues et commentaires faits par d'autres développeurs sur des point comme l'utilisation de la structure, la sécurité, l'efficacité et l'utilité.
Ajustement de la part de développeurs
D'autres développeurs modifiant votre soumission afin de l'améliorer ou faire du nettoyage dans votre code pour qu'il satisfasse aux nouvelles méthodes et classes de structure, aux conventions de codage et aux traductions.
Accès amélioré pour les admins système des wiki
Si vous décidez de mettre votre code sur le wiki, un autre développeur peut décider de le déplacer vers la base de connaissance de code MediaWiki pour une maintenance plus facile. Vous pouvez alors demander un accès commit pour continuer à le maintenir.
Versions futures faites par d'autres développeurs
De nouvelles branches de votre codes créées par d'autres développeurs en tant que nouvelles versions de MediaWiki peuvent être publiées. Avec l'intégration de votre code dans d'autres extensions qui ont un objectif identique ou similaire - incorporant les meilleurs fonctionnalités de chaque extension.
Crédit
Le crédit de votre travail sera préservé dans les versions futures - y compris les extensions intégrées dans d'autres.
De même vous devriez créditer les développeurs de toute extension où vous avez emprunté du code - particulièrement lorsque vous effectuez une intégration.

Tout développeur qui ne se sent pas à l'aide quant à l'une de ces actions ne devrait pas héberger son code directement sur le wiki MediaWiki ou dans la base de connaissance. Vous êtes malgré tout encouragé à créer une page de résumé pour votre extension sur le wiki afin de permettre aux gens de connaître l'extension et qu'ils sachent où la télécharger. Vous pouvez aussi ajouter le modèle {{Extension exception}} sur votre extension afin de demander aux autres développeurs d'éviter de modifier votre code, bien qu'aucune garantie ne peut être donnée qu'une mise à jour ne soit pas faite si elle était nécessaire pour des raisons de sécurité et de compatibilité. Vous pouvez utiliser la page des problèmes courants si vous pensez qu'un autre développeur a violé l'esprit de ces application en éditant votre extension.


Deploying and registering

If you intend to have your extension deployed on Wikimedia sites (including possibly Wikipedia), additional scrutiny is warranted in terms of performance and security. Consult Review queueReview queue.

If your extension adds namespaces, you may wish to register its default namespaces; likewise, if it adds database tables or fields, you may want to register those at database table and field registrationdatabase table and field registration.

Help documentation

You should provide public-domain help documentation for features provided by your extension. Aide:CirrusSearchHelp:CirrusSearch is a good example. You should give users a link to the documentation via the addHelpLink()Manual:Special pages#Help page function.

Providing support / collaboration

Extension developers should open an account on Wikimedia's PhabricatorPhabricator, and request a new project for the extension. This provides a public venue where users can submit issues and suggestions, and you can collaborate with users and other developers to triage bugs and plan features of your extension.

See also


References