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Справка:Наблюдение за страницами

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Watching pages and the translation is 16% complete.
PD Примечание: Редактируя эту страницу, вы соглашаетесь на передачу своего вклада по лицензии CC0.
Подробнее — в проекте Помощь с общественным достоянием.
Некоторые старые изменения для этой страницы были импортированы под лицензией CC BY-SA. Только новые вклады находятся в общественном достоянии (ОД).

Страницы наблюдения предназначены, чтобы каждый logged in пользователь имел список "наблюдаемых" страниц и был извещён в случае внесения правок в эти страницы.

MediaWiki does not let people "own" pages; however, the "watchlist" feature, along with the ability to revert changes, keeps interested users involved in particular pages without the drawbacks of giving someone absolute control over a page.

Управление страницами наблюдения

Следить можно только за теми страницами, которые не скомпонованы динамически.

Страница всегда просматривается вместе с её страницей обсуждения. Все добавления и все исключения из списка наблюдаемых страниц включают в себя необсуждаемые/обсуждаемые комбинации страницы: невозможно следить за одной страницей, не следя за другой.

Перед тем как просмотреть страницу
Белая звездочка, расположенная на полях каждой страницы, добавляет текущюю страницу в ваш список наблюдения, и изменяет свой цвет на "синий".
The message with id 'addedwatchtext' (обсуждение) Страница «$1» и её обсуждение были добавлены в ваш список наблюдения. or message with id 'removedwatchtext' (обсуждение) Страница «$1» вместе с её обсуждением были удалены из вашего списка наблюдения., respectively, is shown above the page, and "Следить" is changed to Не следить or conversely. В зависимости от браузера это делается без перезагрузки всей страницы, используя AJAX с ajaxwatch.js
Перед тем, как сохранить страницу
При сохранении редактированной страницы новый статус слежения (следить или не следить) определяется в флажком "Следить за страницей".
If one activates the user preference "Добавлять в список наблюдения изменённые мной страницы и описания файлов", the checkbox on the edit page will automatically be checked, so unless it is unchecked before saving, the page will be watched upon saving. Additional options are
  • Добавлять в список наблюдения созданные мной страницы и загруженные мной файлы - (if the previous is checked this need not be checked, because creation counts also as an edit)
  • Добавлять в список наблюдения переименованные мной страницы и файлы
  • Добавлять в список наблюдения удалённые мной страницы и файлы
Редактировать весь список
В верхней части страницы Special:Watchlist есть специальная ссылка на "Править список просмотренных страниц".
Тогда несколько дополнительных ссылок доступны наверху специальной Special:EditWatchlist:
  • Просмотреть и править список генерирует полный список ссылок на отслеживаемые страницы (включая страницы обсуждений). Установка одной или нескольких галочек и нажатие кнопки Удалить записи убирает выбранные страницы из списка.
  • Править текстовый список provides a textarea with a list of watched pages (without listing the talk pages), with one title on every line, sorted by namespace number and then in alphabetic order. This allows editing the list directly, copying it to an external editor, or replacing it with one created elsewhere. Дубликаты автоматически удаляются при сохранении.

Watchlist Expiry

A new watchlist feature is included in MediaWiki 1.35 : Watchlist Expiry. With this feature, you can optionally select to watch a page for a temporary period of time. Once the watch period has expired, the page will be automatically removed from your watchlist. You can update the watch period at any time, including switching from temporary to permanent status. Temporarily watched pages are usually represented by a half star (as opposed to a full star, which represents permanently watched pages). To find out when Watchlist Expiry will be enabled on your wiki, you can check out the release schedule on Meta-wiki. For documentation on how to use the feature, please visit Help:Срок действия списка наблюдения .

Список наблюдения

When the user is logged in, every page has a link to the user's watchlist, also accessible by the link Special:Watchlist. This page shows a list of all recently changed watched pages, separated by days, ordered backward according to the time of the edit.

Each line shows details of each edit: whether minor (м) or major, whether made by a bot (б), the time, a link to the page, the difference between the current version and the last one, the history, the increase or decrease of the number of bytes, the user name, the user's talk page, the user's contributions and the edit summary. Depending on site configuration, the page name is bolded if the page has changed after the last time the user viewed the page (while logged in).

Technically, the watchlist is just another way to filter recent changes. The entries come from the recentchanges table and are therefore restricted to edits not older than $wgRCMaxAge (30 days in most WMF projects).


One can hide or show the following types of edits, using the corresponding links: minor edits, bot edits, one's own edits. These can also be set in preferences as initial options when the user comes to Special:Watchlist page.

Another preference option, although named "Maximum number of days to show in watchlist", also sets only the initial value for a period of time for which changes are shown. This period can be easily changed with corresponding links.

There is also a drop-down box that allows to see the changes only in one specific namespace.

Unlike recent changes, watchlist cannot hide edits by logged in/logged out users, there are no links to show only specific number of edits, and there is no way to show all namespaces except one.

Простой список набдюдения

By default watchlist only shows the last edit to each watched page.

There are two possible problems if a page had a non-minor recent edit, but the last edit was marked as minor:

  • non-minor edits will not be shown.

Since one is typically interested in all changes since one last checked, in this case the history of the page needs to be checked.

  • if watchlist is set not to show minor changes, then the page will not appear in the watchlist at all.

Many experienced users prefer to use Expanded Watchlist.

Expanded watchlist

With the preference "Расширить список наблюдения, включая все изменения, а не только последние" the watchlist will show all recent edits, listed in chronological order.

In this case the preference "Группировать изменения в свежих правках и списке наблюдения", which toggles enhanced recent changes, also affects the watchlist the same way: recent changes of watched pages are grouped by day, and within a day by page.

Another preference option is "Максимальное количество правок для показа в списке наблюдения:". A site can limit the maximum value for this option, for example the maximum seems to be 1000 on WMF projects.

To show pages with older edits, view the changes by namespaces or use the non-enhanced watchlist, and/or reduce the number of watched pages.

Other effects of watching a page

The watchlist is only one of the features with regard to watching pages; even without ever using it, specifying pages to watch is useful.

Recent and related changes, page history

In Recent Changes, Enhanced Recent Changes, and Related Changes, watched pages are bolded.

If one views the history of a watched page directly, without first viewing the page, the edit at the top (the most recent one) may be marked using update marker message with id 'updatedmarker' (обсуждение) обновлено после вашего последнего посещения; this applies if the edit was made by someone else and you have not viewed the page (while logged in) since it was made. This is actually enabled together with email notification.

Email notification

See also Уведомления for the 2013 extension.

From MediaWiki 1.5, you can get an email after a watched page has been edited by somebody else. This will not be repeated until you view the page. Viewing a diff or the page history is not enough. Note that you have to be logged in when viewing the page, otherwise you will not be notified of further changes. Optionally this notification system can ignore minor changes (this is the default).

Whether the feature is enabled on a wiki can be seen in the preferences: if it is, the message with id 'tog-enotifwatchlistpages' (обсуждение) Уведомлять по электронной почте об изменениях страниц и файлов из списка наблюдения will be one of the options of the main section. The notifications for user talk edits are enabled by another preference option.

Having a separate email for every edited page that one likes to watch in the sense of the other watch features, may be too much. New features are being proposed and developed to deal with this: the option to have emails sent, after a delay, with a list of edited pages, and/or the possibility to specify a subset of watched pages for email notification. See also Echo (Notifications) .

For the latter, as a workaround, one may be tempted to log in under a different username just to specify a different (typically smaller) watchlist for email notification. However, after viewing a page under one username, one would have to clear the notification flag for that page for the other username too.

Technical details

To enable it on a wiki, $wgEnotifWatchlist is set to true, and it still depends on preference settings. The email-message below is: message with id 'enotif body' (обсуждение) Здравствуйте, $WATCHINGUSERNAME!


Краткое описание изменения: $PAGESUMMARY $PAGEMINOREDIT

Обратиться к изменившему: эл. почта: $PAGEEDITOR_EMAIL вики: $PAGEEDITOR_WIKI

Если вы не зайдёте на эту страницу под своей учётной записью, в случае её дальнейших изменений уведомлений больше не будет. Вы можете также отключить опцию уведомления для всех страниц в вашем списке наблюдения.

Система оповещения MediaWiki

-- Изменение настройки уведомлений https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Special:Preferences

Изменение настройки вашего списка наблюдения https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Special:EditWatchlist

Удалить страницы из вашего списка наблюдения $UNWATCHURL

Обратная связь и помощь $HELPPAGE See Email notification. Since May 2011 the feature is enabled on all Wikimedia projects for the user talk notifications, and since April 2012 for watchlist edits too. From early May 2012, the preference for edited pages to be added to watchlist is the default.

User preferences

The following options are (or can be) available in Preferences >> User Profile tab

  • Разрешить другим участникам отправлять мне электронную почту
  • Отправлять мне копии писем, которые я посылаю другим участникам
  • Уведомлять по электронной почте об изменениях страниц и файлов из списка наблюдения
  • Уведомлять по электронной почте об изменении персональной страницы обсуждения
  • Уведомлять по электронной почте также при малых изменениях страниц и файлов
  • Уведомлять меня по почте о новых ответах на ветке, за которой я слежу

Common misunderstandings

Email notification has many settings, so if you think you've missed something check them carefully.

  • The notifications about a page that "has been created" may be about any log action (such as protection) on the page, see задача T16901 and sons.
  • If you don't click the link in the notification, you won't receive it next time.

Look for bolded items in your Special:Watchlist: they're pages you've not yet seen after recent changes and you won't be notified about them (note: your wiki may have hidden this essential highlighting feature).

  • Edits by authorised bots sometimes don't cause an email notification even if you've configured your preferences to receive one for that kind of action: namely, if they make a minor edit on your talk page and you've set (only?) "Уведомлять по электронной почте об изменении персональной страницы обсуждения", or if they make a minor edit on any page and you've set "Уведомлять по электронной почте также при малых изменениях страниц и файлов".

This behavior is not documented nor configurable and has some bugs; see T40874.

See also the list of known bugs.

What you cannot watch

Watchlist only detects actual edits to the wikitext of the page.

Included pages
Changes to transcluded pages can also change the way the watched page is rendered, however these changes do not appear in the watchlist.

For more information see Help:Page history#Linking to a specific version of a page. One may choose to watch all the templates used, and the templates used by these templates, etc.

Actions will not appear in watchlist:
Note that after the move both the old and the new name are watched.
Some projects have special templates (such as {{Sprotected }}) that should be added to protected pages, thus partly solving the problem.
Some projects might have a policy to add a deletion notice to the page first, or even to notify main authors on their talk pages.
One can also periodically check Special:Watchlist/edit page and inspect all broken (red) links.
Images and categories
Watching an image or a category means watching only the editable part.

Watchlist will not show uploads of new versions of images. It is not possible to watch a category in the sense of being notified if pages are added or removed. With "related changes," additions to categories can be detected; for removals, one has to watch all pages in the category.

Watching a nonexistent page

One can watch a nonexistent page. This page will appear in the watchlist changes when somebody creates it.

For example, if you watch a page that does not yet have a talk page, you will be notified when someone starts a new discussion on the talk page.

You can watch a page even if neither the content page nor the talk page exists. To do that, go to the page's URL, either by typing the URL directly or following a (broken) link, and then press "Watch" (depending on the skin you may have to press Cancel before getting the link Watch).

Page moves and the watchlist

If a page you have watched is moved to a new title, the new title will be automatically added to your watchlist. Even if the page is later moved back, the new title will remain in your watchlist along with the old one.

Even if the new title is deleted after the page has been moved back, a note about the deletion will appear on your watchlist and the title will remain in your list of watched pages. If you notice mysterious nonexistent pages appearing on your watchlist, this is the most likely explanation.

Related changes feature

Main article: w:Help:Public watchlist

The "Related changes" can be used to set up watchlist-like functionality, as explained below.

Pages with links (possibly specially created for this purpose, e.g. as subpages of one's user page) can be used with Related Changes as a collection of separate "watchlists". Note however that unlike My Watchlist, Related Changes does not automatically include talk pages; to watch also the corresponding talk pages, links to them also have to be in the page on which Related Changes is applied. If the links to the talk pages are put just for this purpose, a blank space as link label can be used, which makes the link invisible and ineffective, except for Related Changes. Also, using Related Changes there is not the convenience of pressing a "watch" link to add the current page to the list of "watched pages".

Note that Related Changes does not detect an edit in the page itself and its talk page. Either include a self-link and a link to the talk page in the page, or put the page in another "special watchlist", or in one's standard watchlist.

Such pages can use the template mechanism to include other pages. However, see Pollution of categories.

Watching pages in a category by applying Related Changes to the category has a major drawback: removal of a page from the category is not detected.

An advantage of using Related Changes as alternative for the list of watched pages is that a revision history of the page(s) with links is available, while the system does not keep a record of pages that one has watched. However, Special:Watchlist/raw allows storage of the list: locally, or in a user subpage on the wiki.

If privacy is a concern, an advantage of the watchlist feature (if the list is not stored in a page on the wiki) is that it does not publicly reveal one's interest in a page (if one does not edit it). See also below.

CSS (Каскадные листы стилей)

As an alternative or in addition to using the watchlist feature, one can also define a user style for links to selected pages, putting in one's CSS a list of lines like:

a[title ="pagename"] {color:  white; background: red; font-size: 150% } 

Это работает в браузере Opera, но не работает в Internet Explorer.

On the (Enhanced) Recent Changes page it works like the bolding feature mentioned above, but it is more versatile, e.g. allowing extra emphasis on pages one is very interested in, or different styles for different categories of interesting pages. Furthermore, it also works on user contributions pages, and on regular pages (also for piped links, but not for indirect links through a redirect). It also applies, less usefully, for the section editing links in the page itself.

To highlight links to the given page also from other websites, including interlanguage links, use instead of the above:

a[href ="full URL "] { .. }

Note that the full URL is needed, even to highlight links from the same project, even though the HTML code uses the relative URL /wiki/pagename.

Privacy of watchlists

Ordinary users or administrators cannot tell what is in your watchlist, or who is watching any particular page. Developers who have access to the servers that hold the Wikipedia database can figure out this kind of information. Publicly available database dumps do not include this kind of information.

См. также