发展

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This page is a translated version of the page Growth and the translation is 75% complete.
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发展

帮助内容: 使用工具 (帮助面板, 启用主页, 如何认领学员, 建议编辑)

有关所有发展团队项目的简要总结,请参见本页

目前提案

有关这些天的更新和其中的特定项目,详见发展团队更新页面,或者注册我们团队的新闻报

The table below is a quick way to see which Growth team initiatives are deployed in which wikis. See the specific project pages for details.

Wiki 每月新账户数 编者之旅 欢迎调查 帮助小组 新人主页 新人任务
韩文维基百科 2,500 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
捷克语维基百科 1,500 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
越南语维基百科 4,000 所有新人 已关闭(请参阅任务T218920 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
阿拉伯语维基百科 10,000 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
巴斯克语维基百科 100 所有新人 所有新人 所有新人 所有新人 所有新人
乌克兰语维基百科 1,400 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
匈牙利语维基百科 900 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
亚美尼亚语维基百科 250 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
塞尔维亚语维基百科 500 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
法语维基词典 250 所有新人 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 尚未
法语维基百科 17,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
波斯语维基百科 6,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
希伯来语维基百科 2,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
俄语维基百科 12,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
波兰语维基百科 2,500 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
葡萄牙语维基百科 9,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
瑞典语维基百科 1,200 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
土耳其语维基百科 6,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
孟加拉语维基百科 2,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
罗马尼亚语维基百科 1,200 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
丹麦语维基百科 500 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
泰语维基百科 1,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
印尼语维基百科 4,000 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
克罗地亚语维基百科 200 不需要 所有新人 A/B测试 A/B测试 A/B测试
印地语维基百科 2,000 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
日文维基百科 6,000 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
泰卢固语维基百科 200 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
书面挪威语维基百科 800 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
阿尔巴尼亚语维基百科 200 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
世界语维基百科 20 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
简单英语维基百科 900 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
泰米尔语维基百科 300 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test
马来语维基百科 500 Not needed All newcomers A/B test A/B test A/B test

上表中,粗体的wiki(阿拉伯语、捷克语、孟加拉语和越南语维基百科)是我们的试点wiki,具有专门资源。[1] 了解更多有关获取功能的信息

目的

发展团队于2018年7月成立。 The team supports the Audiences department's "New Content" program, and, in turn, the Wikimedia Foundation's long-term goal of "Knowledge Equity". Those initiatives are about building strong communities that bring broad and deep content to people all over the world. One way to accomplish this is by engaging new contributors in Wikimedia projects. Unfortunately, very few people who start contributing continue to contribute in the days and weeks after they begin. This is because contributing requires many cultural and technical skills that are difficult to learn. The Growth Team's objective is to address this problem through software changes that help retain new contributors in mid-size Wikimedia projects, starting with Wikipedias.

We are beginning our work with mid-size Wikipedias for a few reasons. Those projects have a lot of potential for growth, but also have challenges that may be helped through software. Much of the motivation for this team's work comes from the New Editor Experiences research project, which was undertaken in 2017. In the research, the Wikimedia Foundation worked with the Czech and Korean Wikipedia communities to understand the challenges that stand in the way of new contributors. Continuing that relationship, we will be testing software changes on the Czech and Korean Wikipedias before deploying to other mid-sized Wikipedias. 我们对软件的更改通常可归入以下三种类别:

  • 上下文帮助:更改维基百科的编辑体验,围绕技术和概念提升帮助效果。
  • 真人帮助:编者互联的论坛和计划,以便资深编者可以帮助新手编者迈向成功。
  • 推荐任务:建议有助于新手学习编辑技能的编辑类型。

人物

以下几节可能会在未来几周内发生重大变化,或者它们过于技术性或与项目理解不太相关。我们决定不翻译它们。

Past projects

For information about the Growth team that existed from 2013–2015, see Growth/Growth 2014.
For information about the predecessor to this team, see Collaboration.

Past projects by various iterations of the team and volunteer developers:

Goals and metrics

As stated in the Audiences department’s 2018-2019 annual plan, the Growth team’s goal is:

Increase retention of new contributors in the target wikis, Czech and Korean Wikipedias.

To determine whether we’re meeting our goal, we have specified metrics and set targets for them:

测量 目标
New contributor retention in target wikis 10% increase
Mentor retention in target wikis Sustainable rate

The first metric, “new contributor retention”, is the main metric we use to measure our impact.  The second metric, “mentor retention”, will be relevant for interventions that involve mentorship. As we focus our work, we will consider whether that second metric is the right fit for the team at this time.

We need to create a more specific definition of “new contributor retention” in order for it to be useful.  See the section below on “What does it mean to ‘retain new contributors’?” for our team’s thinking.

In the future, this section will contain links to the Growth team's reports that track our metrics.

What does it mean to "retain new contributors"?

For the purposes of this team, “new contributors” are people who have registered accounts on a wiki project, even if they have not made an edit. To “retain” them means that they make edits and continue to make edits over time. Though we hope that contributors are retained for months and years, we know that they will first have to make it through their first days and weeks. Those first days and weeks are more likely to be the Growth team’s focus.

There are different periods of time over which we can measure retention. One definition might be “second month retention”, meaning a contributor is "retained" if they edit during their first month and also edit during their second month. But another definition might be “second week retention”, meaning a contributor is "retained" if they edit during their first week and also edit during their second week.

As we work, the Growth team will determine which types of retention are most important to track and to increase.  See this page for a formal definition of retention.

Background

Wikimedia projects need to have a constant stream of new contributors in order to become hubs for broad and deep content. New contributors replace experienced contributors who stop editing. They also increase the diversity of the editing community. This stream of new editors allows projects to grow their content while increasing the diversity of their content. But in many Wikimedia projects, the number of active contributors is decreasing or staying the same, and the retention rate of new contributors is also decreasing or staying the same. This issue was studied in the 2013 paper The Rise and Decline of an Open Collaboration System: How Wikipedia's reaction to popularity is causing its decline. The authors showed that active contributors in English Wikipedia began to shrink in 2007, with the major cause being increasing technical and cultural barriers for contributors. Since then, similar patterns have been seen in other Wikimedia projects.

Data showing the state of active contributors and contributor retention in Wikimedia projects is forthcoming.

Beyond the high-level numbers themselves, additional research suggests that many new contributors do not reach their full potential because contributing is both technically and culturally complicated. For instance, it is common for excited new contributors to have their first edits reverted or their first pages deleted without an informative explanation. This causes them to be confused and disappointed, and ultimately not to continue editing.

Together, the numbers, research, and stories, mean that we can do better to engage and retain new contributors. In particular, the Wikimedia Foundation decided to focus on mid-size Wikipedias because those projects need to grow their content, have challenges with contributor retention, and there is potential for software to help.

To better understand what causes new contributors to stay and to leave, the Wikimedia Foundation completed the New Editor Experiences research project in 2017.  The project identified the main challenges experienced by new contributors to Wikipedia, and a set of potential solutions.  See the “Challenges” and “Solutions” sections below for the details.

The Growth team formed to take action on the challenges and solutions identified by the research project. We will continue our relationship with the Czech and Korean communities by testing changes in those wikis first. When we discover changes that increase contributor retention, we will engage other communities to consider deploying those changes in more wikis.

Although much valuable research has already been done to help our team understand new editors, important open questions remain. The team records and prioritizes our open questions on this page. We will be deliberate about using research, data, surveys, and feature instrumentation to answer them.

Principles

The following is a list of healthy characteristics that we think wikis should exhibit with respect to new contributors.  They are guiding principles for our team, and we hope to help make them a reality in the wikis we work with.

  • Diverse contributors lead to wikis with broad and deep content.
  • Contributors who want to make useful improvements to a wiki should all be able to find a place in the community where they fit in.
  • Contributors should be able to learn to edit on their own.
  • Contributors of any skill level should be able to ask for and receive help from other community members.
  • Contributors should be able to learn and edit in a supportive and non-confrontational environment.

Challenges

There are challenges that stand in the way of the principles above.  The main challenges were identified by the New Editor Experiences research project that was completed in 2017.  With the help of Czech and Korean community members, researchers interviewed 64 contributors to Czech and Korean Wikipedias to learn about why they started editing, what they found easy or difficult, and if they've stopped editing, why they stopped. The project surfaced a set of technical, conceptual, and cultural challenges, summarized below.  Our team’s work will help wikis overcome these challenges so that the principles can become reality.

  • Technical: new contributors struggle with specific skills needed to contribute.
    • Editing: though Visual Editor is helpful for new contributors, it is hard for them to learn the process of building, citing, and publishing.
    • Communication: new contributors have trouble finding and using Talk pages. This is because Talk pages do not use Visual Editor, and because they work differently than other internet discussion systems.
    • Finding help: many wikis have scattered and inconsistent help materials that are difficult for new contributors to find and use.
  • Conceptual: new contributors have trouble learning core wiki policies and best practices.  The following are the concepts that are most challenging.
    • Community: many new contributors do not realize there is an active community behind each wiki project.
    • Verifiability and citations: all content must be attributed to reliable sources.
    • Notability: all content must have garnered enough broad attention to deserve an article.
    • Encyclopedic style and neutral point of view: articles should present content without bias toward one side of an argument.
    • Copyright: content should not violate the licensing of its sources.
  • Cultural: the wiki environment can be discouraging to new contributors who are trying to find where they fit in.
    • Personas: new contributors have different objectives for why they are editing, but it is hard to figure out how to accomplish them.
    • Framing: the way that contributors communicate impacts whether new contributors stay. Negative feedback can discourage further contribution.

Solutions

The Growth team will attempt multiple solutions to the above challenges, and we will learn and expand as we go along.  These are the findings from the New Editor Experiences project that will guide the solutions we attempt:

  • Intermediaries: many new contributors have succeeded because a partner or mentor helped them learn to edit.  These partners are frequently found in off-wiki places like schools, libraries, or meetups.
  • Iterative learning: new contributors have more success when they learn editing skills over time in safe environments.
  • Outside help: new contributors frequently search for help outside of Wikipedia, either in off-wiki communications, or through other internet resources.

Those trends lead to two main categories of solutions to the challenges described above.  The work of our team will usually fit into one of these categories:

  • Human-to-human help: forums and programs that connect contributors to each other so that experienced contributors can help newer contributors succeed.  This can include help desk forums, mentorship opportunities, or even off-wiki connections.
  • In-context help: changes to the Wikipedia editing experience to surface helpful guidance around technical and conceptual challenges.  This is guidance surfaced at the time it is needed, in the place where it is needed -- as opposed to on a separate page that may be difficult to find.

This page contains the list of ideas that the team has considered and discussed with communities.

How we work

The Growth Team follows several principles as we work toward our objective.

  • We keep in close communication with the communities our team affects, so that our work remains grounded in reality.
  • We start with small interventions, learn quickly, and adjust our approach.
  • We make decisions based on evidence from experiments, data, and user research.
  • We take the time to equip ourselves with the tools we need to be flexible and work quickly.
  • The software we build gives flexibility to the communities who use it, so they can modify and improve it on their own.
  • When we know something doesn’t work, we remove it cleanly and learn for the future.
  • We follow the Wikimedia Product Guidance for working with communities.

How to work with us

While we will be focusing on Czech and Korean Wikipedias during 2018 as our initial audiences, we are looking for information and input from various other places and demographics. Here are some ways you can help us through some useful resources on how to interact with newcomers or how to get the tools we create on your wiki.

References

These are links and research that underpin the background, principles, challenges, and solutions above, and that continue to shape our team’s thinking.

  1. 孟加拉语维基百科于2021年2月取代了韩语维基百科。