Como se tornar um hacker do MediaWiki

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This page is a translated version of the page How to become a MediaWiki hacker and the translation is 9% complete.

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Esse artigo foi feito para ajudar desenvolvedores novatos a aprender as habilidades necessárias para contribuir ao desenvolvimento MediaWiki. Note that in most cases when working with MediaWiki, you do not want to hack MediaWiki core unless you really know what you're doing.

The main path to get started with Wikimedia development is to contribute to Wikimedia projects that offer mentoring. An alternative without mentoring is to fix an annoying little bug.

Se você é um desenvolvedor experiente, visite Central do DesenvolvedorDeveloper hub.

Para conhecer outras maneiras de se envolver com a comunidade do MediaWiki, veja Como ajudar?How to contribute.

Visão geral

MediaWiki é o software que alimenta a Wikipédia, seus projetos parceiros e milhares de outras wikis ao redor do mundo. Roda na maioria dos sistemas operacionais, é escrito em PHP, primariamente usa as bases de dados MySQL e MariaDB e jQuery como biblioteca client JavaScript. O desenvolvimento do MediaWiki é inicialmente apoiado pela Wikimedia Foundation, embora a comunidade voluntária de desenvolvedores participem em grande medida também.

Esta página deve ajuda-lo a se tornar um colaborador MediaWiki.

Isto não é um tutorial e sim o direciona a vários locais onde poderá aprender o que for necessário.

Começando

Primeiro de tudo, tenha $dev e o tutorial Gerrit feitos para baixar nosso código, testá-lo e enviar patches.

Then you can move on to downloading our code, making changes, testing them, and submitting patches. Existem duas maneiras de configurar seu ambiente de desenvolvimento: usando uma máquina virtual pré-configurada (vagrant), ou manual.

Máquina Virtual com o Vagrant

  • Vagrant installation - These steps will install MediaWiki server with all the requirements inside a Linux virtual machine (can be used on Linux, Windows, or Mac hosts)

Instalação manual

It's not necessary to download Wikipedia database dumps in order to develop MediaWiki features. In fact, in many cases it's easier to use a near-empty database with a few specially-crafted test pages. However, if for some reason you want to have a copy of Wikipedia, you can get a dump.

Leitura recomendada

Watch as a developer fixes a bug in a MediaWiki extension, including investigation, git commit, getting it reviewed and merged, and closing the Bugzilla ticket (now replaced by PhabricatorPhabricator).

Feedback, perguntas e suporte

  • You are expected to do some basic research yourself first: Look at the code, try to get some understanding what it is supposed to do, read related documentation, try to find the probable place(s) where you need to make changes in order to fix the bug.
  • If you have general questions about infrastructure (Git, Gerrit, Vagrant), the software architecture or workflows which are not tied to the specific task that you want to work on, use generic channels like IRCIRC, mailing lists, or wiki discussion pages but not the specific task. For example, if you have a problem with Gerrit, the Gerrit discussion page could be a good place to ask.
  • If you have a specific question about the bug itself, comment in the corresponding bug report (normally a task in PhabricatorPhabricator). "Can you give me more info how to fix this bug?" is not a good question to start with: The more specific your questions are, the more likely somebody can answer them quickly. If you have no idea at all how to fix the bug, maybe that bug is not (yet) for you - please consider finding an easier one first.
  • When asking, explain what you have tried and found out already, so others can help at the right level. Be specific - for example, copy and paste your commands and their output (if not too long) instead of paraphrasing in your own words. This avoids misunderstandings.
  • Avoid private email or support requests in our social media channels.
  • Be patient when seeking input and comments. On IRC, don't ask to ask, just ask: most questions can be answered by other community members too if you ask on an IRC channel. If nobody answers, please ask on the bug report or wiki page related to the problem; don't just give up.


Communicate that you work on a task

You do not need to ask if you can work on a task. You do not need to be set as the assignee in a task or announce your plans before you start working on a bug, but it would be welcome. At the latest when you are close to proposing a patch for the task, it is good to announce in a comment that you are working on it. Your announcement helps others to not work on the bug at the same time and to not duplicate work.

Also note that if a task already has a recent link to a patch in Gerrit and has the project "Patch-For-Review" associated in Phabricator, choose a different task to work on instead - avoid duplicating work. If an existing patch in Gerrit has not been merged and has not seen any changes for a long time, you could also pick up that existing patch and improve it, based on the feedback in Gerrit and in the task.

If you stop working on a task, remove yourself as the assignee of the task, so others know that they can work on the task and don't expect you to still work on it.

By communicating early you will get more attention, feedback and help from community members.


Appendix

MediaWiki contributors at work in Bangalore, India.

PHP

MediaWiki is written in PHP, so you'll need to get familiar with PHP to hack MediaWiki's core.

Learn PHP
  • PHP tutorial — Available in many different languages. If you have no knowledge of PHP but know how to program in other object-oriented programming languages, PHP will be easy for you to learn.
  • PHP Programming at Wikibooks.
  • PHP topic at Wikiversity.
PHP resources
Stuff to know
  • The script maintenance/eval.php in MediaWiki provides a basic PHP interpreter with MediaWiki objects and classes loaded.

Database

Many features require some amount of database manipulation, so you'll often need to be familiar with MySQL/MariaDB.

Learn MySQL/MariaDB
MySQL/MariaDB resources
Stuff to know
  • Test your code with MySQL/MariaDB.
    • MediaWiki currently uses MySQL and MariaDB as the primary database back-end. It also supports other DBMSes, such as PostgreSQL and SQLite. However, almost all developers use MySQL/MariaDB and don't test other DBs, which consequently break on a regular basis. You're therefore advised to use MySQL/MariaDB when testing patches, unless you're specifically trying to improve support for another DB. In the latter case, make sure you're careful not to break MySQL/MariaDB (or write queries that are horribly inefficient in it), since MySQL/MariaDB is what everybody else uses.

JavaScript and CSS

JavaScript and CSS have become omnipresent in front-end code. You don't have to be familiar with JavaScript, jQuery and CSS to work on MediaWiki, but you might need to, depending on what you choose to work on.

Learn JavaScript and CSS
JavaScript and CSS resources

MediaWiki

The MediaWiki code base is large and some parts are ugly; don't be overwhelmed by it. When you're first starting off, aim to write features or fix bugs which only touch a small region of code.

MediaWiki basics and must-reads
MediaWiki resources

MediaWiki extensions

If you choose to work on MediaWiki extensions code, the following links provide more information.

MediaWiki extensions basics
MediaWiki extensions resources

See also