成为 MediaWiki 的贡献者

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This page is a translated version of the page How to become a MediaWiki hacker and the translation is 29% complete.

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这篇文章用以帮助开发者学习向 MediaWiki 贡献的基础技能

如果你是一个有经验的开发者,请访问开发人员中心Developer hub

概覽

MediaWiki是维基百科,與其分项目,还有世界各地数以千计的维基网站使用的软件。 它可用於大多數的作業系統,以PHP編譯,主要使用MySQL資料庫伺服器與jQuery為其 client Javascript library。 MediaWiki的開發主要由維基媒體(Wikimedia)支助,不過志願社區參與的開發者們也十分重要。

本頁會教導您一步步成為MediaWiki的貢獻者 此入門教學,而是引導您至不同任何您覺得必要學習的內容。

入门

從為开发权限Developer access和閱讀Gerrit入門註冊開始。 然後你可以去下載我們的代碼,做出改變,測試他們,然後提交補丁。 共有兩種方法架設您的開發環境:使用預設虛擬機器(vagrant),或手動。

虛擬機器與Vargant

  • 安裝Vagrant - 這些步驟會安裝MediaWiki伺服器於所有符合需求的Linux虛擬機器(可用於Linux、Windows,或Mac hosts)

手动安装

It's not necessary to download Wikipedia database dumps in order to develop MediaWiki features. In fact, in many cases it's easier to use a near-empty database with a few specially-crafted test pages. However, if for some reason you want to have a copy of Wikipedia, you can get a dump.

推荐阅读

一般建議

If you choose to work on a bug report that requires writing or changing code, you might want to at least skim these pages first:

Watch as a developer fixes a bug, including investigation, git commit, getting it reviewed and merged, and closing the Bugzilla ticket (now replaced by PhabricatorPhabricator).


回饋、問題與支援

  • You are expected to do some basic research yourself first: Look at the code, try to get some understanding what it is supposed to do, read related documentation, try to find the probable place(s) where you need to make changes in order to fix the bug.
  • If you have general questions about infrastructure, the software architecture or workflows which are not tied to the specific bug that you want to work on, use generic channels like IRCIRC, mailing lists, or wiki discussion pages. For example, if you have a problem with Gerrit, the Gerrit discussion page could be a good place to ask.
  • If you have a specific question about the bug itself, comment in the corresponding PhabricatorPhabricator report. "What do I have to do to fix this bug?" is not a good question to start with: The more specific your questions are, the more likely somebody can answer them quickly. If you have no idea at all how to fix the bug, maybe that bug is not (yet) for you - please consider finding an easier one first.
  • When asking, elaborate what you have tried and found out already, so others can help at the right level. Try to be specific - for example, copy and paste your commands and their output (if not too long) instead of paraphrasing in your own words. 这避免了误解。
  • Avoid private email or support requests in our social media channels.
  • Please be patient when seeking input and comments. On IRC, don't ask to ask, just ask: most questions can be answered by other community members too if you ask on an IRC channel. If nobody answers, please ask on the bug report or wiki page related to the problem; don't just drop the question.
  • 溝通Communication了解更多。


Communicate that you work on a bug

You do not need to be set as the assignee in a bug report or announce your plans before you start working on a bug, but it would be welcome. At the latest when you are close to creating a patch for the bug, it is good to announce in a comment that you are working on it. Your announcement also helps others to not work on the bug at the same time and duplicate work.

Also note that if a bug report already has a recent link to a patch in Gerrit and has the project "Patch-For-Review" associated, you should choose a different bug to work on instead - avoid duplicating work. If the patch in Gerrit has not been merged and has not seen any changes for a long time, you could also pick up that existing patch and try to improve it.

If you stop working on a task you should remove yourself as the assignee of a bug report and reset the assignee to the default assignee, so others know that they can work on the bug report and don't expect you to still work on it.

By communicating early you will get more attention, feedback and help from community members.


Working on extensions

If you choose to work on MediaWiki extensions code, the following links provide more information.

MediaWiki extensions primers
MediaWiki扩展手册:


搜索建议

以下部分描述了您可以编写的几个示例领域,但不限于这些领域!

在Phabricator的任务(漏洞报告)的右上角你可以看到有问题的成品和部件

这提供了一个关于代码所在的Git仓库的提示,以及您可以联系的开发团队,如果您想以“更广泛”的方式进行讨论(作为错误报告中的评论,最好参考具体问题仅在报告中描述)。

文档

Pywikibot

PyWikibot是一个建立在框架上去编写机器人给MediaWiki。 Ask your general development questions on the Pywikibot mailing list and the #pywikibot IRC channel.

多媒体

Ask your general Multimedia development questions on the multimedia mailing list and the #wikimedia-multimedia IRC channel.

移动应用

There are numerous applications for mobile devices (Android, iOS, Windows Phone, …) to access Wikimedia wikis. Read the general development information and ask your questions on the Mobile mailing list and the #wikimedia-mobile IRC channel.

阅读

The reading team builds the software that serves our readers. We also manage the mobile web experience. Read the general development information and ask your questions on the Mobile mailing list and the #wikimedia-mobile IRC channel.

维基数据

Wikidata is a centralized knowledge base for structured data, such as interwiki references and statistical information. Ask your general development questions on the Wikidata mailing list, the #wikidata IRC channel and on the wiki.

Huggle

Huggle is a desktop application for dealing with vandalism on Wikimedia projects, written in C++.

浏览器测试与质量保证

Automated browser tests help Wikimedia engineers produce quality user facing software faster. See the page on Browser testing for more on what technologies we use and how to get involved. For more general information, see Quality Assurance.

语言工程(本地化/翻译/国际化)

Ask your general Language Engineering development questions on the mediawiki-i18n mailing list and the #mediawiki-i18n IRC channel.

可视化编辑器和Parsoid

可视化编辑器MediaWiki所见即所得编辑器。 Ask your general VisualEditor development questions on the wikitech mailing list and the #mediawiki-visualeditor IRC channel.

VisualEditor is powered by Parsoid, a wikitext parser and runtime. Ask your general Parsoid development questions on the wikitext mailing list and the #mediawiki-parsoid IRC channel.

探索/搜索

The Discovery team builds the path of anonymous discovery to a trusted and relevant source of knowledge. Ask your general development questions on the Discovery mailing list and on the #wikimedia-discovery IRC channel.

分析

The Analytics team empowers and supports data-informed decision making in Wikimedia. Ask your general development questions on the Analytics mailing list.

设计

Fixing design bugs or requests requires existing graphics skills working with a Vector graphics application (e.g. Inkscape). Basic knowledge of CSS can also be helpful for integration. Ask your general development questions on the Design mailing list and the #wikimedia-design IRC channel.

皮肤

Skins allow users to customize the look and feel of MediaWiki. Basic knowledge of CSS and PHP is helpful. Check the project page in Phabricator for more information on each skin and contact information.

System messages and localization/translation problems

System messages in MediaWiki or its extensions often need small corrections to the English text, but the source text can only be changed in the code by developers, contrary to translations. This has grown into a large backlog of usually very easy fixes (which might be as easy as fixing a typo).

Also, many messages are unclear and require better documentation (see Localisation#Message documentation). Missing documentation can also be added by just editing the /qqq subpage of the message on translatewiki.net, like all translations, but may require some study of the code to understand what a message is for: it's therefore optimal to start understanding the code, and very useful for the translators (who do not have such skills).

协作

The Collaboration team mainly works on Echo and Flow.

Ask questions regarding Collaboration team projects on the #wikimedia-collaboration IRC channel.

MediaWiki

MediaWiki is the core software which provides basic wiki functionality. It is complex, written in PHP, and some areas might not have clear maintainership. Ask your general development questions on the wikitech mailing list and the #wikimedia-dev and #mediawiki IRC channels.

Phlogiston

Phabricator is used by Wikimedia for project management, software bug reporting and feature requests. Phlogiston is a set of SQL, Python, and R scripts to report on Phabricator data, particularly burnup reports and forecasting.

Semantic MediaWiki

Semantic MediaWiki is one of the biggest and most popular MediaWiki extensions.

Maps

Maps is a popular MediaWiki extension that allows for, amongst other things, embedding of dynamic maps into wiki pages

以及更多…

Still not enough ideas? There are more fields you can explore - MediaWiki has hundreds of extensions and tools! Check out the complete list of bugs recommended for new contributors:

If you have any trouble or questions, please ask for help via IRC or feel free to contact Andre Klapper or Quim Gil.

附录

MediaWiki contributors at work in Bangalore, India.

PHP

MediaWiki is written in PHP, so you'll need to get familiar with PHP to hack MediaWiki's core.

學習PHP
  • PHP tutorial — Available in many different languages. If you have no knowledge of PHP but know how to program in other object-oriented programming languages, PHP will be easy for you to learn.
  • PHP Programming at Wikibooks.
  • PHP topic at Wikiversity.
PHP resources
Stuff to know
  • The script maintenance/eval.php in MediaWiki provides a basic PHP interpreter with MediaWiki objects and classes loaded.

数据库

Many features require some amount of database manipulation, so you'll often need to be familiar with MySQL/MariaDB.

Learn MySQL/MariaDB
MySQL/MariaDB resources
要知道的东西
  • 用MySQL/MariaDB測試你的代碼。
    • MediaWiki currently uses MySQL and MariaDB as the primary database back-end. It also supports other DBMSes, such as PostgreSQL and SQLite. However, almost all developers use MySQL/MariaDB and don't test other DBs, which consequently break on a regular basis. You're therefore advised to use MySQL/MariaDB when testing patches, unless you're specifically trying to improve support for another DB. In the latter case, make sure you're careful not to break MySQL/MariaDB (or write queries that are horribly inefficient in it), since MySQL/MariaDB is what everybody else uses.

JavaScript和CSS

JavaScript and CSS have become omnipresent in front-end code. You don't have to be familiar with JavaScript, jQuery and CSS to work on MediaWiki, but you might need to, depending on what you choose to work on.

Learn JavaScript and CSS
JavaScript and CSS resources

MediaWiki

The MediaWiki code base is large and some parts are ugly; don't be overwhelmed by it. When you're first starting off, aim to write features or fix bugs which are constrained to a small region of code.

MediaWiki primers and must-reads
MediaWiki resources

參見