Help:Tables/zh

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Tables and the translation is 55% complete.

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For MediaWiki's database table structure, see 手册:数据库布局Manual:Database layout

Tables may be created in wiki pages. 經驗上,除非必要,應盡量避免使用表格。 表格的標示語言通常複雜化了頁面的編輯。 [1]

Wiki 標示語言一覽[edit | edit source]

{| 表格 起始
|+ 表格 標題, 選用; 每張表格只能出現一次且介於表格起始與第一行
|- 表格行, 第一行選用 -- wiki 引擎會假設是第一行
! 表格標題 儲存格, 選用。 Consecutive table header cells may be added on same line separated by double marks (!!) or start on new lines, each with its own single mark (!).
| 表格資料 儲存格, 必要! Consecutive table data cells may be added on same line separated by double marks (||) or start on new lines, each with its own single mark (|).
|} 表格結束
  • 上述符號必須出現在新行的開頭除了當在同一行中想要延續儲存格所增用的雙 || 與 !! 。
  • 'XHTML 屬性' 每一個符號,除了表格的末尾,可選擇性的接受一或多個 XHTML 屬性。 屬性必須與符號在同一行。 請使用一個空格隔開每一項屬性。
    • 儲存格與標題 (| 或是 ||,! 或是 !!,以及 |+) 持有表格內容。 所以要使用單線(|)來區隔屬性與內容。 儲存格內容可以都位在同一行或是換到另一行。
    • Table and row marks ({| and |-) do not directly hold content. 在它們的屬性之後請不要加入管線(|)。 如果你在表格與行符號的屬性之後錯誤的加入管線符號,剖析器會將之刪除 以及之後任何觸及該出錯管線的屬性!
  • 內容 (a) 可以任何選用的 XHTML 屬性之後跟著同一行它的儲存格標記或是 (b) 儲存格標記的下一行。 使用 wiki 標示語言的內容本身需要自新的一行開始,例如清單,表頭,或是表格內接的表格,必須在它自個兒的新行。
    • Pipe character as content. To insert a pipe (|) character into a table, use the <nowiki>|</nowiki> escaping markup.

簡單的表格[edit | edit source]

下面這個表格沒有外框與留白,但是顯示了最簡單的 wiki 表格標示語言的結構。

You type You get
{|
|橘子
|苹果
|-
|面包
|饼
|-
|奶油
|冰淇凌 
|}
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

想要排列得更像表格,可以使用 wiki 標示語言 || 將儲存格分開但又並排於同一行。 If the text in the cell should contain a line break, use <br/> instead.

You type You get
{|
|Orange||Apple||more
|-
|Bread||Pie||more
|-
|Butter||Ice<br />cream||and<br />more
|}
Orange Apple more
Bread Pie more
Butter Ice
cream
and
more

Extra spaces within cells in the wiki markup, as in the wiki markup below, do not affect the actual table rendering.

You type You get
{|
|  橘子 || 苹果 || 更多
|-
|   面包 || 饼 || 更多
|-
|   奶油 || 冰淇凌 || 以及更多
|}
橘子 苹果 更多
面包 更多
奶油 冰淇凌 以及更多

You can have longer text or more complex wiki syntax inside table cells, too:

You type You get
{|
|Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, 
consetetur sadipscing elitr, 
sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt
ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, 
sed diam voluptua. 

At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores
et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren,
no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum
dolor sit amet. 
|
* Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
* consetetur sadipscing elitr
* sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt
|}
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,

consetetur sadipscing elitr, sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt ut labore et dolore magna aliquyam erat, sed diam voluptua.

At vero eos et accusam et justo duo dolores et ea rebum. Stet clita kasd gubergren, no sea takimata sanctus est Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet.

  • Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet
  • consetetur sadipscing elitr
  • sed diam nonumy eirmod tempor invidunt

Table headers[edit | edit source]

Table headers can be created by using "!" (exclamation mark) instead of "|" (pipe symbol). Headers usually show up bold and centered by default.

You type You get
{|
! style="text-align:left;"| Item
! Amount
! Cost
|-
|橘子
|10
|7.00
|-
|面包
|4
|3.00
|-
|奶油
|1
|5.00
|-
!Total
|
|15.00
|}
Item Amount Cost
橘子 10 7.00
面包 4 3.00
奶油 1 5.00
Total 15.00

Note: When using attributes as in the heading 'Item' a vertical bar '|' is used for separation. Not an exclamation character '!'.

Caption[edit | edit source]

A table caption can be added to the top of any table as follows.

You type You get
{|
|+食品和配餐
|-
|橘子
|苹果
|-
|面包
|饼
|-
|奶油
|冰淇凌 
|}
食品和配餐
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

class="wikitable"[edit | edit source]

Basic styling (light gray background, borders, padding and align left) can be achieved by adding class="wikitable".

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
|+食品和配餐
|-
|橘子
|苹果
|-
|面包
|饼
|-
|奶油
|冰淇凌 
|}
食品和配餐
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

HTML colspan and rowspan[edit | edit source]

You can use HTML colspan and rowspan attributes on cells for advanced layout.

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
!colspan="6"|Shopping List
|-
|rowspan="2"|Bread & Butter
|饼
|Buns
|Danish
|colspan="2"|Croissant
|-
|Cheese
|colspan="2"|冰淇凌
|奶油
|Yogurt
|}
Shopping List
Bread & Butter Buns Danish Croissant
Cheese 冰淇凌 奶油 Yogurt

XHTML attributes[edit | edit source]

You can add XHTML attributes to tables. For the authoritative source on these, see the W3C's HTML 4.01 Specification page on tables.

Attributes on tables[edit | edit source]

Placing attributes after the table start tag ({|) applies attributes to the entire table.

You type You get
{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center; color: green;"
|橘子
|苹果
|12,333.00
|-
|面包
|饼
|500.00
|-
|奶油
|冰淇凌
|1.00
|}
橘子 苹果 12,333.00
面包 500.00
奶油 冰淇凌 1.00

Attributes on cells[edit | edit source]

你可以將屬性加諸於個別的儲存格。 例如數字靠右對齊會比較好看

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
| 橘子
| 苹果
| style="text-align:right;" | 12,333.00
|-
| 面包
| 饼
| style="text-align:right;" | 500.00
|-
| 奶油
| 冰淇凌
| style="text-align:right;" | 1.00
|}
橘子 苹果 12,333.00
面包 500.00
奶油 冰淇凌 1.00

You can also use cell attributes when you are listing multiple cells on a single line. Note that the cells are separated by ||, and within each cell the attribute(s) and value are separated by |.

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
| 橘子 || 苹果     || style="text-align:right;" | 12,333.00
|-
| 面包 || 饼       || style="text-align:right;" | 500.00
|-
| 奶油 || 冰淇凌 || style="text-align:right;" | 1.00
|}
橘子 苹果 12,333.00
面包 500.00
奶油 冰淇凌 1.00

Attributes on rows[edit | edit source]

你也可以將屬性加諸於個別的

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
| 橘子
| 苹果
| style="text-align:right;"| 12,333.00
|-
| 面包
| 饼
| style="text-align:right;"| 500.00
|- style="font-style: italic; color: green;"
| 奶油
| 冰淇凌
| style="text-align:right;"| 1.00
|}
橘子 苹果 12,333.00
面包 500.00
奶油 冰淇凌 1.00

Simple one-pixel table border[edit | edit source]

An example of a one-pixel table border:

You type You get
{| border="1" style="border-collapse:collapse"
| 橘子
| 苹果
|-
| 面包
| 饼
|}
橘子 苹果
面包

Border width[edit | edit source]

If "border-width:" has only one number, it is for all four border sides:

You type You get
{|style="border-style: solid; border-width: 20px"
|
Hello
|}

Hello

If "border-width:" has more than one number, the four numbers are for top, right, bottom, left (REMEMBER this order):

You type You get
{|style="border-style: solid; border-width: 10px 20px 100px 0"
|
Hello
|}

Hello

When there are fewer than 4 values, the value for left takes its default from the value for right, the value for bottom takes its default from the value for top, and the value for right takes its default from the value for top.

Another method to define the widths of the four sides of a cell is to use "border-left", "border-right", "border-top" and "border-bottom":

You type You get
{|style="border-left:solid 10px black;border-right:solid 20px black;border-top:solid 30px black;border-bottom:solid 40px black;font-size:90%;font-size:90%;" align="center" 
|
Hello
|}

Hello

Notes :

  • The HTML attributes (such as "width=", "border=", "cellspacing=", "cellpadding=") do not need any length unit (the pixel unit is assumed).

The CSS style properties (which override the HTML attributes) require an explicit length unit (if the value is not 0) such as "px" for the pixel.

搭配 HTML 屬性與 CSS 樣式[edit | edit source]

CSS 樣式屬性可以同時搭配或不搭配其他 HTML 屬性

You type You get
{| class="wikitable" style="color:green; background-color:#ffffcc;" cellpadding="10"
|橘子
|苹果
|-
|面包
|饼
|-
|奶油
|冰淇凌 
|}
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

Attributes[edit | edit source]

Attributes can be added to the caption and headers as follows.

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
|+ style="caption-side:bottom; color:#e76700;"|''食品和配餐''
|-
|橘子
|苹果
|-
|面包
|饼
|-
|奶油
|冰淇凌 
|}
食品和配餐
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

Column width[edit | edit source]

Column width can be added as follows.

You type:

{| style="color: black; background-color: #ffffcc; width: 85%;"
| colspan="2" | This column width is 85% of the screen width (and has a background color)
|-
| style="width: 30%; background-color: white;"|
'''This column is 30% counted from 85% of the screen width'''
| style="width: 70%; background-color: orange;"|
'''This column is 70% counted from 85% of the screen width (and has a background color)'''
|}

You get:

This column width is 85% of the screen width (and has a background color)
This column is 30% counted from 85% of the screen width This column is 70% counted from 85% of the screen width (and has a background color)

Accessibility of table header cells[edit | edit source]

Table header cells do not explicitly specify which table data cells they apply to (those on their right on the same row, or those below them on the same column). When the table is rendered in a visual 2D environment, this is usually easy to infer.

However when tables are rendered on non-visual media, you can help the browser to determine which table header cell applies to the description of any selected cell (in order to repeat its content in some accessibility helper) using a scope="row" or scope="col" attribute on table header cells. In most cases with simple tables, you'll use scope="col" on all header cells of the first row, and scope="row" on the first cell of the following rows:

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
|-
! scope="col"| Item
! scope="col"| Quantity
! scope="col"| Price
|-
! scope="row"| 面包
| 0.3 kg
| $0.65
|-
! scope="row"| 奶油
| 0.125 kg
| $1.25
|-
! scope="row" colspan="2"| Total
| $1.90
|}
Item Quantity Price
面包 0.3 kg $0.65
奶油 0.125 kg $1.25
Total $1.90

Alignment[edit | edit source]

Table alignment[edit | edit source]

Table alignment is achieved by using CSS. The table alignment is controlled by margins. A fixed margin on one side will make the table to be aligned to that side, if on the opposite side the margin is defined as auto. To have a table center aligned, you should set both margins to auto

For example, a right-aligned table:

You type You get
{| class="wikitable" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right: 0px;"
| 橘子
| 苹果
|-
| 面包
| 饼
|-
| 奶油
| 冰淇凌 
|}
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

And a center-aligned table:

You type You get
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: auto;"
| 橘子
| 苹果
|-
| 面包
| 饼
|-
| 奶油
| 冰淇凌 
|}
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

Table floating around text[edit | edit source]

If you align a table to the right or the left side of the page, the text that comes after the table starts at the end of it, leaving an empty space around the table. You can make the text to be wrapped around the table by making the table to float around the text instead of just aligning it. This can be achieved using the float CSS attribute, which can specify where the table floats to the right side or to the left. When using float, margins doesn't control table alignment and can be used to specify the margin between the table and the surrounding text.

You type You get
{| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin-left: 10px;"
| 橘子
| 苹果
|-
| 面包
| 饼
|-
| 奶油
| 冰淇凌 
|}

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing 
elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut 
laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi 
enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation 
ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea 
commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor 
in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, 
vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero 
eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit 
praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te 
feugait nulla facilisi.
橘子 苹果
面包
奶油 冰淇凌

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit, sed diam nonummy nibh euismod tincidunt ut laoreet dolore magna aliquam erat volutpat. Ut wisi enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exerci tation ullamcorper suscipit lobortis nisl ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis autem vel eum iriure dolor in hendrerit in vulputate velit esse molestie consequat, vel illum dolore eu feugiat nulla facilisis at vero eros et accumsan et iusto odio dignissim qui blandit praesent luptatum zzril delenit augue duis dolore te feugait nulla facilisi.

Cell contents alignment[edit | edit source]

The alignment of cell contents can be controlled with 2 different CSS properties: text-align and vertical-align. text-align can be specified at the table, row or individual cells, while vertical-align only can be specified at individual rows or cells.

You type You get
{| class="wikitable"
|- style="vertical-align:top;"
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:left;" | A
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:center;" | B
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:right;" | C
|- style="vertical-align:middle;"
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:left;" | D
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:center;" | E
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:right;" | F
|- style="vertical-align:bottom;"
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:left;" | G
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:center;" | H
| style="height:100px; width:100px; text-align:right;" | I
|}
A B C
D E F
G H I

注意事项[edit | edit source]

负数[edit | edit source]

如果你要在一行的第一个单元格中显示负数(例如 |-6 ),其中的负号可能会导致显示不正常。因为MediaWiki软件会认为你的标记并不是新单元格,而是新行 (|-)。 避免的方法是在负号前加空格 (| -6) 或者使用单行单元格标记(||-6)。

CSS vs attributes[edit | edit source]

Table borders specified through CSS rather than the border attribute will render incorrectly in a small subset of text browsers.

Common attributes for columns, column groups and row groups[edit | edit source]

The MediaWiki syntax for tables currently offers no support for specifying common attributes for columns (with the HTML element <col />), column groups (HTML element <colgroup></colgroup>) and row groups (HTML elements <thead></thead>, <tbody></tbody> and <tfoot></tfoot>). Those standard HTML elements are not accepted even in their HTML or XHTML syntax.

All the rows and cells (header or data) of the table are rendered within a single implicit row group (HTML element <tbody></tbody>) without any attributes or styles.

See also[edit | edit source]

Notes[edit | edit source]

  1. Tables can be created using either XHTML table elements directly, or using wikicode formatting to define the table. HTML 表格元件與相關的使用方式在各式的網頁都有詳細的說明於此不再贅述。 The benefit of wikicode is that the table is constructed of character symbols which tend to make it easier to perceive the table structure in the article editing view compared to XHTML table elements.