Help:Cite

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Cite gör det möjligt att lägga till fotnoter på en sida.

Se Tillägg:Cite för tekniska detaljer.

Användning

Den grundläggande principen för <ref>-taggen är att den lägger in texten som skrivs mellan ref-taggar som fotnoter i ett avsett avsnitt, som man kan bestämma med platshållartaggen <references />. Det här formatet kan inte blandas med äldre format - du måste välja det ena eller det andra.

Ytterligare platshållartaggar <references /> kan läggas i texten, och alla <ref> taggar fram till dess, i den gruppen, kommer läggas där.

Om du glömmer att inkludera <references /> i artikeln kommer fotnoterna inte försvinna, men referenserna visas i slutet av sidan istället.

Den här sidan använder själv fotnoter, om den i slutet av den här meningen.[note 1] Om du tittar på den här sidans källkod, kan du se fungerande exempel på fotnoter.

Wikitext Återgivning
Solen är rätt så stor.<ref>E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23–5.</ref> Månen, däremot, är inte så stor.<ref>R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 46 (april 1978): 44–6.</ref>

== Anteckningar ==
<references />

Solen är rätt så stor.[1] Månen, däremot, är inte så stor.[2]

Anteckningar
  1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23–5.
  2. R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 46 (april 1978): 44–6.

Flera användningar av samma fotnot

För att ge en fotnot en unik identifierare, använd <ref name="name">. Du kan sen referera till samma fotnot igen genom att använda en ref-tagg med samma namn. Texten i den andra taggen spelar ingen roll, eftersom texten redan finns i den första referensen. Du kan antingen kopiera hela fotnoten, eller använda en avlutad tom ref-tagg som ser ut så här: <ref name="name" />.

I följande exempel används samma referens tre gånger.

Wikitext Resultat
Detta är ett exempel på flertalet referenser med samma fotnot.<ref name="multiple">Kom ihåg att om du använder samma fotnot fler gånger används bara texten från den första referensen.</ref>

Dessa referenser är särskilt användbara när det kommer till att citera källor om flera uttalanden kommer från samma källa.<ref name="multiple" /> Alla återanvända taggar borde inte innehålla mer innehåll, det kommer orsaka fel. Använd bara tomma taggar i den här rollen.

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end.
Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.<ref name="multiple" />

== Anteckningar ==
<references />

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.[1]

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source[1] Any reused tag should not contain extra content, that will spawn an error. Only use empty tags in this role.

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end. Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.[1]

Anteckningar
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.
Note that identifiers used in the name attribute require alphabetic characters; solely relying on numerals will generate an error message. The quotes are optional unless the name includes a space, punctuation or other mark. It is recommended that names be kept simple and restricted to the ASCII character set.

<references />-taggen

<references />-taggen lägger in texten i alla citeringar som har definierats med <ref>-taggar fram tills där i sidan. Till exempel, baserat på citaten ovan borde det finnas en referens för note-gruppen.

Wikitext Resultat
<references group="note"/>
  1. Denna fotnot används som ett exempel i avsnittet för hur man använder det.

The reference list can have a responsive width (displaying in some cases the references in several columns). In that case, the responsive attribute is used to configure that behavior. On wikis with the default configuration, this will happen on every page; on others, you need to activate it.

In some language editions of Wikipedia, long reference lists may be placed using the template {{Reflist}}, which incorporates <references />. It provides an optional parameter to display the reference list in multiple columns. For instance, the Hindi and Interlingua Wikipedias use the CSS selector references-small to make the reference text smaller than normal text.

Using templates in this way is strongly discouraged, for compatibility, performance, and functionality reasons.

If a page includes more than one <references /> list, each list includes the <ref> tags defined after the previous references list. If these references lists are produced by templates, each one lists the ref tags defined before the first references list, and there is an error message saying that there is a ref tag but not a references list.

Grouped references

This may be disabled by $wgAllowCiteGroups = false; if desired.

The following example generates separate reference lists for citations and miscellaneous footnotes:

Wikitext Resultat
Enligt forskare är solen rätt så stor.<ref>E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23–5.</ref> Faktum är att den är jättestor.<ref group="footnotes"> Lita på dem. Se inte rakt in i solen!</ref>

== Anteckningar ==
<references group="footnotes" />

== Referenser ==
<references />
Enligt forskare är solen rätt så stor.[1] Faktum är att den är jättestor.[footnotes 1]
Anteckningar
  1. Lita på dem. Se inte rakt in i solen!
Referenser
  1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23–5.

The anonymous group works as before, while references destined for the named group will only show up in the designated <references /> element.

Note that identifiers used in the group attribute require alphabetic characters; solely relying on numerals will generate an error message. The quotes are optional unless the name includes a space, punctuation or other mark. It is recommended that names be kept simple and restricted to the ASCII character set.

The rendering of a given group can be customized across the wiki by creating MediaWiki:Cite_link_label_group-name and listing the used signs in the order they appear, separated by spaces or newlines.

For example, if MediaWiki:Cite_link_label_group-lower-alpha is created with the content
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z
then the first <ref group="lower-alpha">...</ref> renders [a], the second one renders [b], and so on, the 26th renders [z].

It is an error to use more footnotes in a custom-rendered group than the number of signs defined, so the 27th footnote in this group causes an error.

The following group names are often defined as custom groups by the following messages respectively:

group name message
upper-alpha MediaWiki:Cite link label group-upper-alpha
lower-alpha MediaWiki:Cite link label group-lower-alpha
upper-roman MediaWiki:Cite link label group-upper-roman
lower-roman MediaWiki:Cite link label group-lower-roman
lower-greek MediaWiki:Cite link label group-lower-greek
The cite link label group pages are not created by default. If a wiki does not configure them, markup such as <ref group="lower-alpha">...</ref> will render as lower-alpha 1.

Citing different parts of the same source

When several parts from the same work are used as references in an article, you can cluster them in the reference section. This gives readers a way to identify which references originate from the same source. It also allows you to cite different parts of the same source without repeating the entire source every time.

Wikitext Resultat
Enligt forskare är solen rätt så stor.<ref name="Miller">E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005).</ref> Faktum är att den är jättestor.<ref extends="Miller">p. 123</ref> Lita på dem. Se inte rakt in i solen!<ref extends="Miller">p. 42</ref>

== Referenser ==
<references />
Enligt forskare är solen rätt så stor.[1] Faktum är att den är jättestor.[1.1] Lita på dem. Se inte rakt in i solen![1.2]
Referenser

1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005)
   1.1 ↑ p. 123
   1.2 ↑ p. 42

Note that this feature doesn't yet work on wikis outside the beta cluster, which is why the above example is a mock. You can follow the project update at m:WMDE Technical Wishes/Book referencing.

Separating references from text

In-text references make it easy to copy the text to another page; on the other hand, they make it hard to read. References containing a lot of data, quotes or elaborate citation templates can make up a significantly larger fraction of the source than the text that will actually be visible. To avoid this, recent versions of the extension allow moving some or all of the references into the <references /> section, to the place where they will actually appear to the reader.

Wikitext Resultat
According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big.<ref name="miller" /> The Moon, however, is not so big.<ref name="smith" />

== Anteckningar ==
<references>
<ref name="miller">E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23–25.</ref>
<ref name="smith">R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 46 (April 1978): 44–46.</ref>
</references>

According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big.[1] The Moon, however, is not so big.[2]

Notes
  1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23–25.
  2. R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 46 (April 1978): 44–46.

Thus, the code above will have the same output as the first example above, although the numbering and order of the references will not in general be the same.

Substitution and embedded parser functions

Since Cite's <ref> tag is parsed before MediaWiki's parser functions (e.g. {{#ifexpr:…}}) or variables (e.g. {{PAGENAME}}) or before subst:, these will not work inside of citation references. Instead, you have to use the magic word {{#tag:…}}.

Wikitext Resultat
Foo<ref>Detta fungerar inte, se {{cite journal|url=https://www.google.com |author= |date= |accessdate={{subst:#time:Y-m-d|now}}|title=Search}}</ref> bar baz…
Foo{{#tag:ref|Men det gör det här, se {{cite journal|url=https://www.google.com |author= |date= |accessdate={{subst:#time:Y-m-d|now}}|title=Search}}}} bar baz…
<references />

Foo[1] bar baz… Foo[2] bar baz…

  1. Detta fungerar inte, se
    "Search"
    . Retrieved on [[{{subst:#time:Y-m-d|now}}]].
     
  2. Men det gör det här, se
    "Search"
    . Retrieved on 2021-03-11.
     

Adding an automatic heading before the references list

Up to MediaWiki 1.28, one could use the system message MediaWiki:Cite references prefix to define a wiki-wide heading which would be automatically inserted before each references list. In MediaWiki 1.29, this system message was removed. A hacky way to enter a headline now is to add the following code to MediaWiki:Common.js:

$(document).ready(function(){
    $('.mw-references-wrap').before('<h2>References</h2>');
});

If you only need a text heading (no link or other active elements) you could add the following to MediaWiki:Common.css (Chrome 4, IE9, FF 3.5, Safari 3.1, Opera 7):

.mw-references-wrap::before {
  content: "Blue references";
  color: #0645ad;
  text-decoration: none;
  background: none;
  font-style: italic;
  font-size: 100%;
  font-weight: bold;
  line-height: 1.6;
  direction: ltr;
  font-family: sans-serif;
}

Merging two texts into a single reference

A typical Wikisource issue are references that span multiple pages in the source material. These can be merged using a <ref name="name"> tag for the first part of the reference, and tagging the following parts with a tag <ref follow="name"> using the same name.

Exempel:

Wikitext Resultat
This is an example of merging multiple texts into the same footnote.<ref name="main">Remember that all the texts will be included into the reference containing the name="…" attribute.</ref>

<ref follow="main">Simply include the additional text in a tag with the &lt;ref follow="…"> attribute, matching the first ref's name.</ref>

== Referenser ==
<references/>

This is an example of merging multiple texts into the same footnote.[1]


Referenser

  1. Remember that all the texts will be included in the reference containing the name="…" attribute. Simply include the additional text in a tag with the <ref follow="…"> attribute, matching the first ref's name.

When using this syntax, take care that the "follow" part of the footnote is included on the same page as the first part of the reference. Note that reference names cannot be start with a number, so always include some text like, <ref name="p32"> and <ref follow="p32">.

Anpassning

The format of the output of <ref> and <references> is almost completely customizable through MediaWiki messages, that can be modified, for example, through the MediaWiki namespace depending on the configuration of the wiki.

For a list of messages that control the output of <ref> and <references> and the values, if any, that are passed to them ($1, $2, $3 ...), see an up-to-date listing of the default values that can be obtained directly from MediaWiki.

Incomplete list
  • cite_reference_link_key_with_num
    1. key
    2. num
  • cite_reference_link_prefix
  • cite_reference_link_suffix
  • cite_references_link_prefix
  • cite_references_link_suffix
  • cite_reference_link
    1. ref ID
    2. backlink ID
    3. count to display
  • cite_references_link_one
    • Used to format the source list that <references /> outputs, it configures 3 things: the backlink ID, the ref ID, and text of note.
    1. backlink IDUsed for creating the number order of the source list.
    2. ref IDUsed to link back to the actual reference in the text, this is where you can configure the ^'’' symbol.
    3. text of notetext used above describing the source info
  • cite_references_link_many
    1. backlink ID
    2. list of links
    3. text of note
  • cite_references_link_many_format
    1. ref ID
    2. numeric value to use as a backlink
    3. custom value (as defined in cite_references_link_many_format_backlink_labels to use as a backlink)
  • cite_references_link_many_format_backlink_labels
  • cite_references_link_many_sep
  • cite_references_link_many_and
  • cite_references_suffix

Set references to use ^ and letters

To replace the default uparrow (↑) with caret (^), modify the following system messages. All of these pages can be found on Special:AllMessages.

MediaWiki:Cite references link one
Från Till
<li id="$1"$4><span class="mw-cite-backlink">[[#$2|↑]]</span> $3</li>
<li id="$1"$4><span class="mw-cite-backlink">[[#$2|^]]</span> $3</li>
MediaWiki:Cite references link many
Från Till
<li id="$1"$4><span class="mw-cite-backlink">↑ $2</span> $3</li>
<li id="$1"$4><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ $2</span> $3</li>
MediaWiki:Cite references link many format

Ersätter man $2 med $3 ändras länkarna från 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 till a, b, c osv…

Från Till
<sup>[[#$1|$2]]</sup>
<sup>[[#$1|$3]]</sup>

Searching for these pages for the first time will result in no matches. Simply click "Create this page" to edit the code. The changes will not show up until a page with references is rebuilt.

Set reference and reference number highlighting

Starting with MediaWiki 1.26 the selectors for highlighting are now incorporated into Cite/modules/ext.cite.css. Thus the CSS code below no longer needs to be added manually.

Add the following code to the MediaWiki:Common.css page.

/* make the Cite extension list of references look smaller and highlight clicked reference in blue */
ol.references { font-size: 90%; }
ol.references li:target { background-color: #ddeeff; }
sup.reference:target { background-color: #ddeeff; }

Trasiga referenser

Är <ref> eller <references />-taggarna felaktigt använda, kommer Cite-tillägget att infoga ett felmeddelande på sidan, och lägga till "Sidor med referensfel"-kategorin. Felmeddelandena kommer visas i användarens gränssnittsspråk, antingen i artikelns innehåll eller i Referenser-sektionen. Till exempel:

Wikitext Resultat
Detta är ett exempel på ett referensfelmeddelande.<ref broken>Tänkt text.</ref>

== Anteckningar ==
<references />

Detta är ett exempel på ett referensfelmeddelande.Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; invalid names, e.g. too many

Anteckningar

Se spec for Parsoid's Cite error representation. (på engelska)

Se även