手册:LocalSettings.php

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This page is a translated version of the page Manual:LocalSettings.php and the translation is 40% complete.

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警告 警告: 不要使用文档编辑器(例如记事本、TextEdit或其他将字节顺序标记添加至文件的文本编辑器)编辑LocalSettings.php。 这会破坏您wiki的PHP运行时。 请改用代码编辑器,例如Vim、Notepad++或Atom。 它们会正确处理文件编码。 它们也可以用于修复之前被文档编辑器破坏的文件。

LocalSettings.php文件提供了MediaWiki安装的基本配置设置(基于DefaultSettings.php 文件)。您应该花些时间查看文件中的设置。该文件一般是由基于Web的MediaWiki安装程序生成,但您可以调整参数,与Apache配合使用。若将MediaWiki作为维基农场配置,可能会使用一个被称为CommonSettings.php 的文件。

服务器上的位置

LocalSettings.php文件不是一个Wiki页面且您不能够通过网页浏览器访问它。相反,它是服务器文件系统中的一个文件。它的内容是在wiki的初始设置过程中生成的,生成的文件必须手动复制到服务器上。此文件必须位于您安装MediaWiki的目录中,与文件夹includes/skins/和文件api.php在同一级目录。若该文件不在这里,这个Wiki将完全不会工作;若这个Wiki在工作,那么该文件就在这里。如果您不知道这个文件在哪里,您可以在终端窗口中输入例如命令来查找它,例如:find / -iname LocalSettings.php -print

(If you are using Vagrant, see also MediaWiki-Vagrant#MediaWiki_settings.)

安全

LocalSettings.php通常包含敏感数据比如数据库登录信息。这个数据永远不应向公众透露。由于服务器上某处存在安全漏洞,可能会发生其他用户可以查看文件内容。为了提高数据的安全性,您应该相应地为此文件设置UNIX权限:网络服务器用户必须能够访问这个文件。若与拥有该文件的帐户相同,则可以将权限设置为600。有时网络服务器用户不是这个文件的所有者,而在所有者的UNIX用户组中,这时权限应被设置为640。为了提高安全性,您应尽可能使用最小权限。

此外,您可以创建一个仅在Wiki上使用MySQL用户并在LocalSettings.php中提供相关的凭据。此外,您还可以配置您的MySQL服务器仅接受来自于本地的连接,这将降低从外部访问使凭据泄露的情况。

文件内容

当您在编辑LocalSettings.php文件时,请确保以正确的编码下保存。您应该使用“ANSI as UTF-8”编码(即无字节顺序标记的UTF-8编码)。

LocalSettings.php文件中包含了PHP代码,主要是变量和其值的定义。更改设置通常意味着更改PHP变量的值。将文件保存到服务器后,您的更改将立即生效:不需要手动“重启”任何东西。尽管在某些情况下,您可能需要清除浏览器的缓存才能看到您所做的更改。

许多默认值includes/DefaultSettings.php中被设定,您不应该去改动它。如果您要更改的变量未在LocalSettings.php中提及,请从DefaultSettings.php中复制相应的行到LocalSettings.php中并做些相应的更改。LocalSettings.php中,您可以在末尾添加新行。

在该文件中,将有几行内容指向扩展,例如:“require_once "$IP/extensions/extension.php";”这几行允许在Wiki中启用相应的扩展。这些扩展可能需要在LocalSettings.php中设定更多变量的值, 有关进一步的说明,请参阅相应扩展的文档。

In MediaWiki 1.16 and earlier it was important to not place extensions before the require_once "includes/DefaultSettings.php"; line; that will blank the extension setup function arrays, causing no extensions to be installed, and probably making your wiki inaccessible. Since 1.17 it's no longer necessary for LocalSettings.php to include DefaultSettings.php.

像MediaWiki中的大多数PHP文件一样, LocalSettings.php文件并不以关闭的PHP标签?>结束。这样可以防止管理员意外地在此标签之后添加新信息。PHP没有关闭标签工作正常。

倘若您有一个在维基农场上的MediaWiki,您可能并没有编辑(可能也没有阅读的权限)LocalSettings.php文件的权限(例如参见[1])。Wiki Farm的公司可能愿意或不愿做出您所期望的更改。也许他们希望在维基农场的所有维基上保持多数相同的配置。

在1.17版本之前,该文件被安装脚本自动创建并放置于config文件夹中。自1.17版本起,出于安全原因,这个文件不再在网络服务器上写入。现在它将作为下载内容提供,您必须将它上传到您的服务器上以使您的Wiki工作。获取更为完整的解释,参阅这个页面

可用参数概览

请参阅配置设置索引以及设置文件中包含的说明,以获取所有相关变量的帮助。以下列出了最重要的变量以及多数需要的功能的简短列表。

标准设置

包括路径

The $IP (include path) variable holds the local file path to the base installation of your wiki. Since MediaWiki 1.17, MediaWiki is setting $IP automatically - setting it manually in LocalSettings.php is no longer needed. It will default to the current working directory automatically and can be used without the need to manually define it.

The DefaultSettings.php file gets loaded from the directory designated by the IP variable.

网站名称

$wgSitename 保存您安装wiki时设置的名称。这个名字在整个系统中被多次包含如通过MediaWiki:Pagetitle。例如,维基百科的标语“维基百科,自由的百科全书”就使用了这个设置。

Declensions of site name

Some translations of interface are ready for inflection of site name. You can set proper forms of word in variables $wgGrammarForms (for example please refer to the $wgSitename documentation page).

网站语言

$wgLanguageCode controls the language of your wiki's interface. While users can switch the language they see in their preferences, this variable sets the default language that all anonymous users and most registered users see.

脚本路径

$wgScriptPath is the URL path prefix to access the main MediaWiki script that is the central acting piece of code of MediaWiki. This setting should correspond to the Apache settings, especially if you are using Apache's rewrite rules.

服务器名称

$wgServer contains the base URL of the server, including protocol but without the trailing slash and without the subdirectory if any. When the wiki is accessed from either the localhost where it runs, from an intranet or from the internet, e-mail notifications and a few other computed messages would be usually delivered with the different URLs.

From MediaWiki 1.34 $wgServer must be set in LocalSettings.php. Prior to that, MediaWiki tried to autodetect the name of the server and $wgServer was optional, to override the autodetection.

If www.example.com is the server address of your wiki as seen from the internet, add a line such as

$wgServer = 'http://www.example.com';

The magic word variable {{SERVER}} can be used on wiki pages; it equals the value of $wgServer; however, on a wiki, such as those in the WikiMedia family, where relative urls are used, it will not fully expand, for example here it displays //www.mediawiki.org, which can neither be clicked nor copy-pasted into the address bar as it is.

脚本名称

$wgScript is the name of the main (index) MediaWiki PHP script, named index.php by default. Changing the script name is probably not a good idea. However, if you feel the urge to do so, this is the place to make your changes. Make sure you know what you are doing.

重定向脚本名称

$wgRedirectScript specifies the URL path to the redirect script which handles redirects in MediaWiki. This setting is similar to wgScript as you can configure the exact name of the script. As mentioned above, this is probably not a good idea unless you really know what you are doing.

文章路径

$wgArticlePath is the path to use when accessing a page in MediaWiki. The path should contain the path to the main script (usually making use of $wgScript) and use the $1 placeholder for the article name.

If you are using Apache rewrite rules to create pretty and short URLs, you probably need to adjust $wgArticlePath to address the right path. Note that wgArticlePath is used to construct URLs from within MediaWiki. If you make a mistake here, internal links will show up incorrectly while you still may be able to access the main page by specifying the correct URL manually. See Manual:Short URL for more information on URL configuration.

典型值为:

"$wgScript/$1" 用分隔符“/”传递文章名称
"$wgScript?title=$1" pass the article name as a parameter (old style)
"/mypath/$1" custom path. Use Apache rewrite rules to convert "mypath" to the proper path accessing the main script

Stylesheet location

Use $wgStylePath to set the URL path to the place where the stylesheets (CSS) for the MediaWiki installation are located. $wgStyleDirectory should point the same place, but note that this is a local file system path for use in internal scripts accessing the file system.

上传位置

The upload directory is the place where files uploaded by the users are stored. $wgUploadPath specifies the URL path, $wgUploadDirectory points to the local file system path.

标志

$wgLogo specifies which graphical logo is displayed in the top left corner of all mediawiki pages. These steps replace the default logo in the /wiki/skins/common/images/ directory, replacing /wiki with the path to the directory where you installed the MediaWiki software.

First, copy whatever logo you want into the /wiki/skins/common/images/ directory (replacing /wiki with the path to the directory where you installed the MediaWiki software).

Next, try to find the line that looks like this in LocalSettings.php:

$wgLogo        = "{$wgStylePath}/common/images/wiki.png";

If there's no such line, you can copy and paste the line above at the end of the file.

Then, modify that line to point to your logo. The logo must be web accessible. The value of this variable is passed to the web browser, which uses it to fetch the logo. If in doubt, a good way to pick what to put here is navigate to the logo in your web browser (for example, this wiki the url of the logo is http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/mediawiki/b/bc/Wiki.png ), and put the full url as the value of this variable.

Some people just replace the skins/common/images/wiki.png file with their logo. This is not recommended, as the customized logo would be overwritten on upgrade.

联络信息

$wgEmergencyContact is the e-mail address of the user to contact if something goes wrong. This e-mail address is used to send internal bug reports to. As an administrator, you want to include your e-mail address here.

$wgPasswordSender is the e-mail address where e-mail gets sent from, when passwords are sent out to users who have forgotten their passwords. Choose an address people can reply to in case of trouble or confusion.

数据库设置

MediaWiki needs access to the database (currently either MySQL or PostgreSQL) to store pages, modifications, user information, and a lot more things.

$wgDBserver contains the hostname where the database is hosted on. In most cases this will be just "localhost" as the database is run on the same system, but for distributed installations, you need to fill in the fully qualified domain name of the computer running the database.

$wgDBname is the database name of the database to be used by MediaWiki. A single MySQL or PostgreSQL installation can store more than one database and you can even run many MediaWiki installations on a single server. Make sure you have stated the correct database name here and use different database names for different wiki installations on the same database server.

$wgDBuser and $wgDBpassword contain the login name and password to be used by MediaWiki to access the database. Make sure the specified user has the proper access rights to be able to manipulate the wiki's table on the database server.

用户权限

$wgGroupPermissions is an associative array, controlling permissions for creating and editing pages for your different user groups. In this array, custom permission levels can be created, and permission levels for the different user groups can be set. See Help:User rights for more information about the different permissions and user groups available.

Force capital links

By default, no page name can start with a lowercase Roman letter: in an attempt to do so the first letter is converted to uppercase; if a link target, included page, image or category is specified with a name starting with a lowercase letter, the actual target etc. is the page starting with the corresponding capital.

Alternatively page names can start with a lowercase letter, in addition to the possibilities of starting with a capital, a digit, etc. For that you must adjust $wgCapitalLinks . Setting it to false allows lowercase characters, true chooses the default behavior.

启用子页面

In LocalSettings.php, subpages are enabled on a per-namespace basis using $wgNamespacesWithSubpages . For example, to enable subpages in the main namespace:

$wgNamespacesWithSubpages[NS_MAIN] = 1;

文件上传

Before users are allowed to upload files to the MediaWiki system, you have to enable that feature. Make sure the Upload Directory is properly configured and writeable by the Apache web server process. Then set $wgEnableUploads to true to allow uploading in the web user interface.

i.e. Here's some example code from includes/DefaultSettings.php to put in LocalSettings.php:

$wgUploadPath       = "$wgScriptPath/uploads";      ## Wiki 1.5 defaults to /images, but allows more than just images
$wgUploadDirectory  = "$IP/uploads";                ## Wiki 1.5 defaults to /images, but allows more than just images

## To enable image uploads, make sure the above '$wgUploadPath' directory is writable by Apache User or group.
## ''(i.e.  chmod og+w uploads images)''  then the following should be true:
$wgEnableUploads       = true;

$wgUseImageMagick      = true;
$wgImageMagickConvertCommand = "/usr/bin/convert";

## If you want to use image uploads under safe mode, create the directories images/archive, images/thumb and
## images/temp, and make them all writable. Then uncomment this, if it's not already uncommented:
$wgHashedUploadDirectory = false;

If you want to be able to resize images on the fly to support thumbnails, MediaWiki needs a working ImageMagick installation. Set $wgUseImageMagick to true once you have installed and tested ImageMagick on your system. Make sure $wgImageMagickConvertCommand points to the proper location of the convert command of your installation, that the command is executable by the web server process, and $wgMaxShellMemory is large enough. See 手册:图片管理 for detailed information and trouble-shooting.

Also, you may want to modify the list of accepted extensions, which is stored within $wgFileExtensions :

$wgFileExtensions = array('png','jpg','jpeg','ogg','doc','xls','ppt','mp3','sxc','pdf');

In case ImageMagick outputs an error message similar to the following:

Fatal error: mime_magic could not be initialized, magic file is not available in includes/MimeMagic.php on line 506

then try adding the following line to LocalSettings.php:

$wgMimeDetectorCommand = "file -bi";
Read the upload security section in the Manual:Security.
Further information is available in Manual:Configuring file uploads, Manual:Mime type detection, and 手册:图片管理 .

跨wiki支持

InterWiki support is built into MediaWiki but you need to configure the prefix to be used for your internal links. This prefix is usually the same as $wgSitename, but in case you need to change that, you set the $wgLocalInterwiki variable to the preferred name.

用户界面语言

MediaWiki allows for a variety of localized user interfaces languages instead of the English default. If you want to run your wiki in a non-English language, set the $wgLanguageCode variable to the proper language code (e.g. "de" for German, "es" for Spanish, etc.)

You may use any of the languages with a file in the directory languages/i18n. E.g. if you find es.json, then you can use "es" for Spanish. Do not use "Es" with a capital letter. Although it seems to work, not all texts are translated.

Note: After changing the language code, you will need to run a PHP script to make it work. In a terminal window, change to your wiki directory, change to the maintenance folder, and enter php rebuildMessages.php --rebuild. On Windows, the PHP folder might not be in your PATH environment variable and you'll have to prefix php with the path to the program.

Not all languages are supported. See here for a list of the localisation statistics of 1.34.0-wmf.23 (b2b9fbf). See translatewiki.net for the statistics per released version.

设置网站的版权

  • $wgRightsPage is the page on the wiki that covers the copyrights that it falls under. Usually, this will be Project:Copyrights.
  • $wgRightsUrl is the page describing full details of your license. (For the GNU FDL, for example, this would be http://www.gnu.org/licenses/fdl.html.)
  • $wgRightsText is the text in the footer that follows "Content is available under". It will be linked to the page specified in $wgRightsPage.
  • $wgRightsIcon is the URL of the image placed at the left of the footer.
    Note: If $wgRightsPage is non-empty, the link in the copyright/license notice will link to that page on your site. If $wgRightsPage is empty then the copyright/license notice will link to $wgRightsUrl instead.

To modify the copyright statements of the site, add something like this to LocalSettings.php:

$wgRightsPage = "YourWiki:Copyright"; 
$wgRightsText = "copyright YourWiki";

Afterwards, edit MediaWiki:Copyright to provide an appropriate message, using "$1" to indicate the position where the link to your copyright page will be.

Example: setting a Creative Commons license

To set a Creative Commons license do the following:

 <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/">
 <img alt="Creative Commons License" border="0" src="http://creativecommons.org/images/public/somerights30.png" />
 </a>
 This work is licensed under a
 <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/">
 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License</a>.
  • For $wgRightsURL enter the href info from the first anchor:
$wgRightsUrl = "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/";
  • For $wgRightsText enter the text the second anchor links from (add the "a" to the Wiki variable for a more grammatically correct version)
$wgRightsText = "a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License";
  • For $wgRightsIcon enter the src info from the img link in the first anchor. You want to copy the badge to your own site instead of using the one from the Creative Commons site.
$wgRightsIcon = "http://creativecommons.org/images/public/somerights30.png";
  • For using RDF metadata about copyright add one or both of the following lines to your LocalSettings.php:
$wgEnableCreativeCommonsRdf = true;
$wgEnableDublinCoreRdf = true;

自定义名字空间

By declaring $wgExtraNamespaces , and modifying $wgNamespacesWithSubpages , and $wgNamespacesToBeSearchedDefault , extra namespaces can be added to a MediaWiki installation; and by declaring the $wgNamespaceAliases array namespace aliases can be added. Take heed not to have any pages already titled in that namespace, for instance if you had a page called "Technical:Support" and you created the Technical: namespace, then that page would not only be lost, but you cannot remove it from Special:Allpages. To fix this delete the namespace, move "Technical:Support" to "Support" in mainspace, delete the redirect, reinsert the namespace, and move it back to "Technical:Support". See Custom namespaces for more information as to how to do so.

皮肤

站点的默认皮肤可以通过$wgDefaultSkin 进行修改。

参见