Manual:LocalSettings.php

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Aviso Aviso: Don't edit LocalSettings.php with document editors like Notepad, TextEdit, or other text editors that add byte order marks to files. These break the PHP runtime of your wiki. Instead, use a code editor, e.g. Vim, Notepad++, or Atom. These handle file encodings properly. They can also be used to repair files previously broken by document editors.

O ficheiro LocalSettings.php fornece as definições de configuração básicas (baseada no ficheiro DefaultSettings.php ) de uma instalação do MediaWiki. Utilize bem o seu tempo para rever as definições deste ficheiro. O ficheiro é normalmente criado pelo instalador da Web do seu MediaWiki, mas pode ajustar os parâmetros, possivelmente em conjunto com as definições do Apache. Para as instalações do MediaWiki configuradas como um conjunto de wikis, poderá ser utilizado um ficheiro chamado CommonSettings.php .

Localização no servidor

O ficheiro LocalSettings.php não é uma página wiki e não pode acedê-la com o seu navegador da Web. De facto, este é um ficheiro do sistema do servidor. O seu conteúdo gerado durante a configuração inicial da wiki e o ficheiro resultante devem ser copiados manualmente para o seu servidor. O ficheiro deve estar localizado na diretoria de instalação do MediaWiki, ou seja, na mesma diretoria de pastas, tais como includes ou skins e os ficheiros, tail como api.php. Se este ficheiro não está lá, a wiki não irá funcionar. Se a wiki funcionar, então o ficheiro está lá. Se não o consegue encontrar, pode executar este comando find / -iname 'LocalSettings.php' -print na kanela do terminal para o localizar.

(Se estiver a utilizar o Vagrant, consulte também MediaWiki-Vagrant#MediaWiki_settings.)

Segurança

O arquivo LocalSettings.php contém dados sensíveis, como usuário e senhas do seu bancos de dados. Estes dados nunca devem ser revelados ao público! Devido a falhas de segurança no seu servidor, é possível que outros usuários possam visualizar o conteúdo do arquivo. A fim de melhorar a segurança dos seus dados, você deve configurar as permissões do UNIX para este arquivo adequadamente: o usuário do servidor web deve ter acesso a este arquivo. Se esta é a mesma conta, que é o dono do arquivo, então você pode definir permissões para "600". Às vezes, o usuário servidor web não é o dono do arquivo, mas ele está no grupo de usuários UNIX do proprietário. Neste caso, as permissões de "640" devem estar certas. Para maior segurança, você deve reduzir as permissões de acesso tanto quanto possível.

Você também pode criar um usuário MySQL restrito apenas ao banco de dados usado pelo wiki e fornecer somente as credenciais desse usuário específico no arquivo LocalSettings.php. E adicionalmente, também pode configurar o servidor de banco de dados para aceitar apenas conexões internas, por exemplo, do localhost ou dependendo das regras do seu serviço Web utilizado, endereço específico da máquina - isso ajuda a impedir o acesso a partir do exterior em caso vazamento de credenciais.

Conteúdos de ficheiro

When you edit LocalSettings.php, make sure to save it in the right encoding again. You should use "ANSI as UTF-8" encoding - that is UTF-8 encoding without byte order mark (BOM).

LocalSettings.php contains PHP code; mainly the definition of variables and their values. Changing a setting usually means changing the value of a PHP variable. Your changes will take effect immediately after saving the file again on the server: There is no need to manually "restart" anything. Anyway, in some cases you may need to clear your browser's cache to actually see the changes you made.

The default values of many more settings are set in includes/DefaultSettings.php, which should not be edited; if the variable you want to change is not already mentioned in your LocalSettings.php, copy the appropriate line from DefaultSettings.php and modify it appropriately in LocalSettings.php. Within LocalSettings.php you can add new lines at the end.

Within the file, there can also be several lines such as 'require_once "$IP/extensions/extension.php";', which point to extensions. These lines enable the according extension in the wiki. Those extensions may require setting the values of more variables in LocalSettings.php; check the documentation of the according extension for further instructions.

Like most PHP files in MediaWiki, LocalSettings.php does not end with the closing PHP tag ?>. This prevents admins from accidentally adding new information after this tag. PHP works fine without a closing tag.

If you have a wiki on a MediaWiki wiki farm you may not have write-access (perhaps not even read-access) to the file LocalSettings.php (see e.g.[1]). The wiki farm company may or may not be willing to make changes you desire. Perhaps it wants to keep most settings the same on all wikis of the wiki farm.

This file is not written to your webserver automatically for security reasons. Instead, it is offered as a download, which you must then upload to your server for your wiki to begin working. For a more complete explanation, see this explanation.

Sinopse das definições disponíveis

Consulte o índex das definições de configuração e o comentários incluídos nos ficheiros de definições para ajuda sobre o que fazem todas as variáveis. Está listado em baixo uma lista resumida das variáveis mais importantes, bem como as funcionalidades mais solicitadas.

Definições padrão

Caminho de instalação

The $IP (include path) variable holds the local file path to the base installation of your wiki. Since MediaWiki 1.17, MediaWiki is setting $IP automatically - setting it manually in LocalSettings.php is no longer needed. It will default to the current working directory automatically and can be used without the need to manually define it.

The DefaultSettings.php file gets loaded from the directory designated by the IP variable.

Nome do site

$wgSitename holds the name of your wiki setup. This name gets included many times throughout the system, such as via MediaWiki:Pagetitle. For instance, the Wikipedia tagline "From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia" makes use of this setting.

Declinações do nome do site

Some translations of interface are ready for inflection of site name. You can set proper forms of word in variables $wgGrammarForms (for example please refer to the $wgSitename documentation page).

Idioma do site

$wgLanguageCode controls the language of your wiki's interface. While users can switch the language they see in their preferences, this variable sets the default language that all anonymous users and most registered users see.

Caminho do script

$wgScriptPath is the URL path prefix to access the main MediaWiki script that is the central acting piece of code of MediaWiki. This setting should correspond to the Apache settings, especially if you are using Apache's rewrite rules.

Nome do servidor

$wgServer contains the base URL of the server, including protocol but without the trailing slash and without the subdirectory if any. When the wiki is accessed from either the localhost where it runs, from an intranet or from the internet, e-mail notifications and a few other computed messages would be usually delivered with the different URLs.

From MediaWiki 1.34 $wgServer must be set in LocalSettings.php. Prior to that, MediaWiki tried to autodetect the name of the server and $wgServer was optional, to override the autodetection.

If www.example.com is the server address of your wiki as seen from the internet, add a line such as

$wgServer = 'http://www.example.com';

The magic word variable {{SERVER}} can be used on wiki pages; it equals the value of $wgServer; however, on a wiki, such as those in the WikiMedia family, where relative urls are used, it will not fully expand, for example here it displays //www.mediawiki.org, which can neither be clicked nor copy-pasted into the address bar as it is.

Nome do script

$wgScript is the name of the main (index) MediaWiki PHP script, named index.php by default. Changing the script name is probably not a good idea. However, if you feel the urge to do so, this is the place to make your changes. Make sure you know what you are doing.

Nome do script de redirecionamento

$wgRedirectScript specifies the URL path to the redirect script which handles redirects in MediaWiki. This setting is similar to wgScript as you can configure the exact name of the script. As mentioned above, this is probably not a good idea unless you really know what you are doing.

Caminho do artigo

$wgArticlePath is the path to use when accessing a page in MediaWiki. The path should contain the path to the main script (usually making use of $wgScript) and use the $1 placeholder for the article name.

If you are using Apache rewrite rules to create pretty and short URLs, you probably need to adjust $wgArticlePath to address the right path. Note that wgArticlePath is used to construct URLs from within MediaWiki. If you make a mistake here, internal links will show up incorrectly while you still may be able to access the main page by specifying the correct URL manually. See Manual:Short URL for more information on URL configuration.

Os valores típicos são:

"$wgScript/$1" pass the article name with separator "/"
"$wgScript?title=$1" pass the article name as a parameter (old style)
"/mypath/$1" custom path. Use Apache rewrite rules to convert "mypath" to the proper path accessing the main script

Localização da folha de estilo

Use $wgStylePath to set the URL path to the place where the stylesheets (CSS) for the MediaWiki installation are located. $wgStyleDirectory should point the same place, but note that this is a local file system path for use in internal scripts accessing the file system.

Localização dos envios

A diretoria de envios é o local onde são guardados os ficheiros enviados pelos utilizadores. $wgUploadPath especifica o caminho do URL, $wgUploadDirectory aponta para o caminho do sistema do ficheiro local.

Logótipo

$wgLogo specifies which graphical logo is displayed in the top left corner of all mediawiki pages. These steps replace the default logo in the /wiki/skins/common/images/ directory, replacing /wiki with the path to the directory where you installed the MediaWiki software.

First, copy whatever logo you want into the /wiki/skins/common/images/ directory (replacing /wiki with the path to the directory where you installed the MediaWiki software).

Next, try to find the line that looks like this in LocalSettings.php:

$wgLogo        = "{$wgStylePath}/common/images/wiki.png";

If there's no such line, you can copy and paste the line above at the end of the file.

Then, modify that line to point to your logo. The logo must be web accessible. The value of this variable is passed to the web browser, which uses it to fetch the logo. If in doubt, a good way to pick what to put here is navigate to the logo in your web browser (for example, this wiki the url of the logo is http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/mediawiki/b/bc/Wiki.png ), and put the full url as the value of this variable.

Some people just replace the skins/common/images/wiki.png file with their logo. This is not recommended, as the customized logo would be overwritten on upgrade.

Informação de contacto

$wgEmergencyContact is the e-mail address of the user to contact if something goes wrong. This e-mail address is used to send internal bug reports to. As an administrator, you want to include your e-mail address here.

$wgPasswordSender is the e-mail address where e-mail gets sent from, when passwords are sent out to users who have forgotten their passwords. Choose an address people can reply to in case of trouble or confusion.

Definições da base de dados

MediaWiki needs access to the database (currently either MySQL or PostgreSQL) to store pages, modifications, user information, and a lot more things.

$wgDBserver contains the hostname where the database is hosted on. In most cases this will be just "localhost" as the database is run on the same system, but for distributed installations, you need to fill in the fully qualified domain name of the computer running the database.

$wgDBname is the database name of the database to be used by MediaWiki. A single MySQL or PostgreSQL installation can store more than one database and you can even run many MediaWiki installations on a single server. Make sure you have stated the correct database name here and use different database names for different wiki installations on the same database server.

$wgDBuser and $wgDBpassword contain the login name and password to be used by MediaWiki to access the database. Make sure the specified user has the proper access rights to be able to manipulate the wiki's table on the database server.

Permissões do utilizador

$wgGroupPermissions is an associative array, controlling permissions for creating and editing pages for your different user groups. In this array, custom permission levels can be created, and permission levels for the different user groups can be set. See Help:User rights for more information about the different permissions and user groups available.

Forçar maiúsculas nas hiperligações

By default, no page name can start with a lowercase Roman letter: in an attempt to do so the first letter is converted to uppercase; if a link target, included page, image or category is specified with a name starting with a lowercase letter, the actual target etc. is the page starting with the corresponding capital.

Alternatively page names can start with a lowercase letter, in addition to the possibilities of starting with a capital, a digit, etc. For that you must adjust $wgCapitalLinks . Setting it to false allows lowercase characters, true chooses the default behavior.

Ativação de subpáginas

In LocalSettings.php, subpages are enabled on a per-namespace basis using $wgNamespacesWithSubpages . For example, to enable subpages in the main namespace:

$wgNamespacesWithSubpages[NS_MAIN] = 1;

Envios de imagem

Before users are allowed to upload files to the MediaWiki system, you have to enable that feature. Make sure the Upload Directory is properly configured and writeable by the Apache web server process. Then set $wgEnableUploads to true to allow uploading in the web user interface.

i.e. Here's some example code from includes/DefaultSettings.php to put in LocalSettings.php:

$wgUploadPath       = "$wgScriptPath/uploads";      ## Wiki 1.5 defaults to /images, but allows more than just images
$wgUploadDirectory  = "$IP/uploads";                ## Wiki 1.5 defaults to /images, but allows more than just images

## To enable image uploads, make sure the above '$wgUploadPath' directory is writable by Apache User or group.
## ''(i.e.  chmod og+w uploads images)''  then the following should be true:
$wgEnableUploads       = true;

$wgUseImageMagick      = true;
$wgImageMagickConvertCommand = "/usr/bin/convert";

## If you want to use image uploads under safe mode, create the directories images/archive, images/thumb and
## images/temp, and make them all writable. Then uncomment this, if it's not already uncommented:
$wgHashedUploadDirectory = false;

If you want to be able to resize images on the fly to support thumbnails, MediaWiki needs a working ImageMagick installation. Set $wgUseImageMagick to true once you have installed and tested ImageMagick on your system. Make sure $wgImageMagickConvertCommand points to the proper location of the convert command of your installation, that the command is executable by the web server process, and $wgMaxShellMemory is large enough. See Manual:Administração de Imagem for detailed information and trouble-shooting.

Also, you may want to modify the list of accepted extensions, which is stored within $wgFileExtensions :

$wgFileExtensions = [ 'png', 'jpg', 'jpeg', 'ogg', 'doc', 'xls', 'ppt', 'mp3', 'sxc', 'pdf' ];

In case ImageMagick outputs an error message similar to the following:

Fatal error: mime_magic could not be initialized, magic file is not available in includes/MimeMagic.php on line 506

then try adding the following line to LocalSettings.php:

$wgMimeDetectorCommand = "file -bi";

Suporte de interwiki

InterWiki support is built into MediaWiki but you need to configure the prefix to be used for your internal links. This prefix is usually the same as $wgSitename, but in case you need to change that, you set the $wgLocalInterwiki variable to the preferred name.

Idioma da interface do utilizador

MediaWiki allows for a variety of localized user interfaces languages instead of the English default. If you want to run your wiki in a non-English language, set the $wgLanguageCode variable to the proper language code (e.g. "de" for German, "es" for Spanish, etc.)

You may use any of the languages with a file in the directory languages/i18n. E.g. if you find es.json, then you can use "es" for Spanish. Do not use "Es" with a capital letter. Although it seems to work, not all texts are translated.

After changing the language code, you will need to run a PHP script to make it work. In a terminal window, change to your wiki directory, change to the maintenance folder, and enter php rebuildMessages.php --rebuild. On Windows, the PHP folder might not be in your PATH environment variable and you'll have to prefix php with the path to the program.

Not all languages are supported. See here for a list of the localisation statistics of 1.35.0-wmf.25 (4c33bf8). See translatewiki.net for the statistics per released version.

Configuração dos direitos de autor para o site

If $wgRightsPage is non-empty, the link in the copyright/license notice will link to that page on your site. If $wgRightsPage is empty then the copyright/license notice will link to $wgRightsUrl instead.

To modify the copyright statements of the site, add something like this to LocalSettings.php:

$wgRightsPage = "YourWiki:Copyright"; 
$wgRightsText = "copyright YourWiki";

Afterwards, edit MediaWiki:Copyright to provide an appropriate message, using "$1" to indicate the position where the link to your copyright page will be.

Exemplo: definir uma licença da Creative Commons

To set a Creative Commons license do the following:

 <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/">
 <img alt="Creative Commons License" border="0" src="http://creativecommons.org/images/public/somerights30.png" />
 </a>
 This work is licensed under a
 <a rel="license" href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/">
 Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License</a>.
  • For $wgRightsURL enter the href info from the first anchor:
$wgRightsUrl = "http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/";
  • For $wgRightsText enter the text the second anchor links from (add the "a" to the Wiki variable for a more grammatically correct version)
$wgRightsText = "a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 License";
  • For $wgRightsIcon enter the src info from the img link in the first anchor. You want to copy the badge to your own site instead of using the one from the Creative Commons site.
$wgRightsIcon = "http://creativecommons.org/images/public/somerights30.png";
  • For using RDF metadata about copyright add one or both of the following lines to your LocalSettings.php:
$wgEnableCreativeCommonsRdf = true;
$wgEnableDublinCoreRdf = true;

Espaços nominais personalizados

By declaring $wgExtraNamespaces , and modifying $wgNamespacesWithSubpages , and $wgNamespacesToBeSearchedDefault , extra namespaces can be added to a MediaWiki installation; and by declaring the $wgNamespaceAliases array namespace aliases can be added. Take heed not to have any pages already titled in that namespace, for instance if you had a page called "Technical:Support" and you created the Technical: namespace, then that page would not only be lost, but you cannot remove it from Special:Allpages. To fix this delete the namespace, move "Technical:Support" to "Support" in mainspace, delete the redirect, reinsert the namespace, and move it back to "Technical:Support". See Custom namespaces for more information as to how to do so.

Temas

O tema predefinido do site pode se modificado via $wgDefaultSkin .

Consulte também