Help:Extensão:ParserFunctions

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A extensão ParserFunctions fornece onze funções adicionais ao analisador sintáctico, que suplementam as «palavras mágicas» já presentes no MediaWiki (a extensão pode ser configurada para fornecer funções adicionais para o tratamento de texto; estas funções de texto estão documentadas noutra página). Todas as funções fornecidas pela extensão têm a forma:

{{#função: argumento 1 | argumento 2 | argumento 3 ... }}

#expr

Tipo Operadores
Agrupamento (parênteses) ( )
Números 1234.5   e (2.718)   pi (3.142)
operador binário e   unário +,-
Unários not ceil trunc floor abs exp ln sin cos tan acos asin atan
Binários ^
* / div mod
+ -
Arredondamento round
Lógicos = != <> > < >= <=
and
or

Esta função calcula uma expressão matemática e devolve o valor calculado. A função também está disponível no Scribunto através da função mw.ext.ParserFunctions.expr.

{{#expr: expressão }}

Os operadores disponíveis estão listados na tabela da direita, por ordem crescente de precedência. Consulte Help:Cálculos para mais detalhes sobre a função de cada operador. A exactidão e o formato do resultado devolvido dependem do sistema operativo do servidor que está a executar o MediaWiki, e do formato numérico da língua do site.

Nos operadores de álgebra booleana, o número zero assume o valor lógico falso e qualquer outro número diferente de zero, positivo ou negativo, assume o valor lógico verdadeiro.

{{#expr: 1 and -1 }}1
{{#expr: 1 and 0 }}0
{{#expr: 1 or -1 }}1
{{#expr: -1 or 0 }}1
{{#expr: 0 or 0 }}0

Uma expressão de entrada vazia devolve um texto vazio. Expressões inválidas devolvem uma das várias mensagens de erro, que podem ser apanhadas usando a função #iferror:

{{#expr: }}
{{#expr: 1+ }}Expression error: Missing operand for +.
{{#expr: 1 = }}Expression error: Missing operand for =.
{{#expr: 1 foo 2 }}Expression error: Unrecognized word "foo".

A ordem dos operandos de adição e subtracção antes ou depois de um número é significativa, e pode ser tratada como um valor positivo ou negativo em vez de como um operando com uma entrada errada:

{{#expr: +1 }}1
{{#expr: -1 }}-1
{{#expr: + 1 }}1
{{#expr: - 1 }}-1

Note que, ao usar o resultado de palavras mágicas, tem de formatá-las para remover vírgulas e traduzir os números. Por exemplo, {{NUMBEROFUSERS}} resulta em 15 529 570, quando desejamos 15529570, que pode ser obtido por {{formatnum:{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}|R}}. Isto é especialmente importante nalgumas línguas em que os números são traduzidos. Por exemplo, na língua Bengali, {{NUMBEROFUSERS}} produz ৩০,০৬১.

{{#expr:{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}+100}} Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character " ".
{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}|R}}+100}}15529670
Aviso Aviso: O operador mod produz resultados incorretos para alguns valores do segundo argumento:
{{#expr: 123 mod (2^64-1)}}Division by zero. (produz um texto vazio; devia produzir 123)
Se pretende efetuar cálculos com base em datas (por exemplo, determinar se a data e a hora atuais são posteriores a outra data e hora), primeiro converta a hora para o número de segundos após 1 de janeiro de 1970 usando {{#time: xNU }}, e depois pode simplesmente somar e subtrair datas como números.

Arredondamento

Arredonda o número à sua esquerda para um múltiplo de 1/10 elevado a uma potência, com o expoente igual ao valor truncado do número à direita.

Para arredondar por excesso ou por defeito, use os operadores unários ceil ou floor respetivamente.

Caso de teste Resultado Método de arredondamento
{{#expr: 1/3 round 5 }} 0.33333 O algarismo final é < 5, não ocorre nenhum arredondamento aparente
{{#expr: 1/6 round 5 }} 0.16667 O algarismo final é ≥ 5, portanto é arredondado por excesso
{{#expr: 8.99999/9 round 5 }} 1 Novamente, o resultado é arredondado por excesso no último algarismo, o que resulta num arredondamento adicional
{{#expr: 1234.5678 round -2 }} 1200 Arredondado para a centena mais próxima porque valores negativos arredondam à esquerda da vírgula decimal
{{#expr: 1234.5678 round 2 }} 1234.57 Arredondado para a centésima mais próxima porque valores positivos arredondam à direita da vírgula decimal
{{#expr: 1234.5678 round 2.3 }} 1234.57 Decimais no índice de arredondamento não fazem diferença no resultado arredondado
{{#expr: trunc 1234.5678 }} 1234 Parte decimal truncada (cortada)
Arredondamento para o número inteiro mais próximo
{{#expr: 1/3 round 0 }} 0 Por defeito para o inteiro mais próximo, que é zero
{{#expr: 1/2 round 0 }} 1 Por excesso para o inteiro mais próximo, que é um
{{#expr: 3/4 round 0 }} 1 Por excesso para o inteiro mais próximo, que é um
{{#expr: -1/3 round 0 }} -0 Por excesso para o inteiro mais próximo, que é zero
{{#expr: -1/2 round 0 }} -1 Por defeito para o inteiro mais próximo, que é o menos um
{{#expr: -3/4 round 0 }} -1 Por defeito para o inteiro mais próximo, que é o menos um
Arredondamento por excesso ou defeito com ceil e floor
{{#expr: ceil(1/3) }} 1 Por excesso para o inteiro mais próximo maior, que é um
{{#expr: floor(1/3) }} 0 Por defeito para o inteiro mais próximo menor, que é zero
{{#expr: ceil(-1/3) }} -0 Por excesso para o inteiro mais próximo maior, que é zero
{{#expr: floor(-1/3) }} -1 Por defeito para o inteiro mais próximo menor, que é o menos um
{{#expr: ceil 1/3 }} 0.33333333333333 Não arredondado, uma vez que 1 já é um inteiro
Aviso Aviso: Interpretado como (ceil 1)/3, e não ceil(1/3), como seria de esperar


Textos

As expressões só funcionam com valores semelhantes a números, não podem comparar textos (strings) nem caracteres. Em alternativa, pode usar-se #ifeq.

{{#expr: "a" = "a" }}Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character """.
{{#expr: a = a }}Expression error: Unrecognized word "a".
{{#ifeq: a | a | 1 | 0 }}1

#if

Esta função determina se um texto de teste tem conteúdo ou está vazio. Um texto de teste que só contém caracteres em branco (espaços, linhas novas, etc.) é considerado vazio.

{{#if: texto de teste | valor se o texto de teste não está vazio | valor se o texto de teste está vazio (ou só contém caracteres em branco) }}
{{#if: primeiro parâmetro | segundo parâmetro | terceiro parâmetro }}

Esta função testa se o primeiro parâmetro não está vazio. Se o primeiro parâmetro não estiver vazio a função apresenta o segundo argumento. Se o primeiro parâmetro estiver vazio ou contiver apenas caracteres em branco (espaços, linhas novas, etc.) ela apresenta o terceiro argumento.

{{#if: | yes | no}}no
{{#if: string | yes | no}}yes
{{#if:      | yes | no}}no
{{#if:


| yes | no}}
no

O texto de teste é sempre interpretado como texto puro, portanto expressões matemáticas não são avaliadas:

{{#if: 1==2 | yes | no }}yes
{{#if: 0 | yes | no }}yes

O último parâmetro (falso) pode ser omitido:

{{#if: foo | yes }} yes
{{#if: | yes }}
{{#if: foo | | no}}

A função pode ser intercalada. Para fazê-lo, coloque a função #if interior na sua forma integral, no lugar de um parâmetro da função #if exterior. É possível intercalar até uma profundidade de sete níveis, embora isto possa depender da wiki ou de um limite de memória.

{{#if: texto de teste | valor se o texto de teste não está vazio | {{#if: texto de teste | valor se o texto de teste não está vazio | valor se o texto de teste está vazio (ou contém apenas caracteres em branco) }} }}

Também pode usar um parâmetro como texto de teste na sua declaração #if. Tem de se certificar que adicionou a | (barra vertical) após o nome da variável.

{{#if:{{{1|}}}|Colocou texto na variável 1|Não há texto na variável 1 }}

Consulte Help:Parâmetros de funções nas predefinições para mais exemplos desta função.

#ifeq

Esta função do analisador sintático compara dois textos e determina se são idênticos.

{{#ifeq: string 1 | string 2 | value if identical | value if different }}

Se ambos os textos são valores numéricos válidos, os textos são comparados numericamente:

{{#ifeq: 01 | 1 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: 0 | -0 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: 1e3 | 1000 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: {{#expr:10^3}} | 1000 | equal | not equal}}equal

Caso contrário, a comparação é feita como texto; esta comparação é sensível ao uso de maiúsculas e minúsculas:

{{#ifeq: foo | bar | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: foo | Foo | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: "01" | "1" | equal | not equal}}not equal  (comparar com o exemplo semelhante acima, sem as aspas)
{{#ifeq: 10^3 | 1000 | equal | not equal}}not equal  (comparar com o exemplo semelhante acima, com #expr returning a valid number first)

Como exemplo prático, dada uma predefinição existente Template:Size usado para definir tamanhos curtos e longos padronizados, definidos como:

{{#ifeq: {{{1|}}} | short | 20 | 40 }}

acontecerá o seguinte:

{{timer|short}}20
{{timer|20}}40
{{timer}}40
Aviso Aviso: As comparações numéricas com #ifeq e #switch não são equivalentes às comparações com #ifexpr:
{{#ifeq: 12345678901234567 | 12345678901234568 | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#switch: 12345678901234567 | 12345678901234568 = equal | not equal}}not equal

porque o PHP compara dois números do tipo inteiro, enquanto que:

{{#ifexpr: 12345678901234567 = 12345678901234568 | equal | not equal}}equal

porque o MediaWiki converte os números literais nas expressões para o tipo de vírgula flutuante (float), o que, para inteiros grandes como estes, envolve arredondamentos.



Aviso Aviso: Quando usadas dentro de uma função do analisador sintático, quaisquer etiquetas do analisador e as outras funções do analisador sintático têm de ser temporariamente substituídas por um código único. Isto afeta as comparações:
{{#ifeq: <nowiki>foo</nowiki> | <nowiki>foo</nowiki> | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: <math>foo</math> | <math>foo</math> | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: {{#tag:math|foo}} | {{#tag:math|foo}} | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: [[foo]] | [[foo]] | equal | not equal}}equal
Se os dois textos que são comparados forem chamadas idênticas para uma mesma predefinição que contenha essas etiquetas, então o resultado é verdadeiro, mas se forem chamadas para duas predefinições distintas com conteúdo idêntico que contenham essas etiquetas, o resultado é falso.
Aviso Aviso: As comparações literais com palavras mágicas sobre nomes de páginas podem falhar dependendo da configuração do site. Por exemplo, {{FULLPAGENAME}}, dependendo da wiki, pode converter a primeira letra para maiúsculas e substitui todos os espaços sublinhados por espaços.

To work around this, apply the magic word to both parameters:

{{#ifeq: {{FULLPAGENAME: L'Aquila}} | {{FULLPAGENAME}} | equal | not equal}}equal

#iferror

Esta função recebe um texto de entrada e devolve um de dois resultados; resulta no valor true se o texto de entrada contém um objeto HTML com class="error", tal como é gerado por outras funções do analisador sintático como #expr, #time e #rel2abs, erros em predefinições como ciclos e recursividade, e outros erros do analisador sintático em modo de capacidade diminuída.

{{#iferror: test string | value if error | value if correct }}

Podem ser omitidos um ou ambos os textos a devolver. Se o texto para correto for omitido, é devolvido o texto de teste se este não estiver errado. Se o texto para erro também for omitido, será devolvido um texto vazio em caso de erro:

{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + 2 }} | error | correct }}correct
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + X }} | error | correct }}error
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + 2 }} | error }}3
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + X }} | error }}error
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + 2 }} }}3
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + X }} }}
{{#iferror: {{#expr: . }} | error | correct }}correct
{{#iferror: <strong class="error">a</strong> | error | correct }}error

#ifexpr

Esta função avalia uma expressão matemática e devolve um de dois textos, dependendo do valor booleano do resultado:

{{#ifexpr: expression | value if true | value if false }}

A expressão de entrada é avaliada exatamente como para #expr acima, estando disponíveis os mesmos operadores. A saída é então avaliada como uma expressão booleana.

Uma expressão de entrada vazia é avaliada como false:

{{#ifexpr: | yes | no}}no

Como mencionado acima, zero é avaliado como false e qualquer valor diferente de zero é avaliado como true, portanto esta função é equivalente a uma que use apenas #ifeq e #expr:

{{#ifeq: {{#expr: expression }} | 0 | value if false | value if true }}

except for an empty or wrong input expression (an error message is treated as an empty string; it is not equal to zero, so we get value if true).

{{#ifexpr: = | yes | no }} Expression error: Unexpected = operator.

comparing

{{#ifeq: {{#expr: = }} | 0 | no | yes }} yes

Either or both the return values may be omitted; no output is given when the appropriate branch is left empty:

{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 | yes }}yes
{{#ifexpr: 1 < 0 | yes }}
{{#ifexpr: 0 = 0 | yes }} yes
{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 | | no}}
{{#ifexpr: 1 < 0 | | no}} no
{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 }}

#ifexist

This function takes an input string, interprets it as a page title, and returns one of two values depending on whether or not the page exists on the local wiki.

{{#ifexist: page title | value if exists | value if doesn't exist }}

The function evaluates to true if the page exists, whether it contains content, is visibly blank (contains meta-data such as category links or magic words, but no visible content), is blank, or is a redirect. Only pages that are redlinked evaluate to false, including if the page used to exist but has been deleted.

{{#ifexist: Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt | exists | doesn't exist }}exists
{{#ifexist: XXHelp:Extension:ParserFunctions/ptXX | exists | doesn't exist }}doesn't exist

The function evaluates to true for system messages that have been customized, and for special pages that are defined by the software.

{{#ifexist: Special:Watchlist | exists | doesn't exist }}exists
{{#ifexist: Special:CheckUser | exists | doesn't exist }}exists (because the CheckUser extension is installed on this wiki)
{{#ifexist: MediaWiki:Copyright | exists | doesn't exist }}exists (because MediaWiki:Copyright has been customized)

If a page checks a target using #ifexist:, then that page will appear in the Special:WhatLinksHere list for the target page. So if the code {{#ifexist:Foo }} were included live on this page (Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt), Special:WhatLinksHere/Foo will list Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt.

On wikis using a shared media repository, #ifexist: can be used to check if a file has been uploaded to the repository but not to the wiki itself:

{{#ifexist: File:Example.png | exists | doesn't exist }}doesn't exist
{{#ifexist: Image:Example.png | exists | doesn't exist }}doesn't exist
{{#ifexist: Media:Example.png | exists | doesn't exist }}exists

If a local description page has been created for the file, the result is exists for all of the above.

#ifexist: does not work with interwiki links.

ifexist limits

#ifexist: is considered an "expensive parser function"; only a limited number of which can be included on any one page (including functions inside transcluded templates). When this limit is exceeded, any further #ifexist: functions automatically return false, whether the target page exists or not, and the page is categorized into Category:Pages with too many expensive parser function calls. The name of the tracking category may vary depending on the content language of your wiki.

For some use cases it is possible to emulate the ifexist effect with css, by using the selectors a.new (to select links to unexisting pages) or a:not(.new) (to select links to existing pages). Furthermore, since the number of expensive parser functions that can be used on a single page is controlled by $wgExpensiveParserFunctionLimit, one can also increase the limit in LocalSettings.php if needed.

#rel2abs

This function converts a relative file path into an absolute filepath.

{{#rel2abs: path }}
{{#rel2abs: path | base path }}

Within the path input, the following syntax is valid:

  • . → the current level
  • .. → "go up one level"
  • /foo → "go down one level into the subdirectory /foo"

If the base path is not specified, the full page name of the page will be used instead:

{{#rel2abs: /quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/baz/quok
{{#rel2abs: ./quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/baz/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../. | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar

Invalid syntax, such as /. or /./, is ignored. Since no more than two consecutive full stops are permitted, sequences such as these can be used to separate successive statements:

{{#rel2abs: ../quok/. | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../../../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}quok
{{#rel2abs: ../../../../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Error: Invalid depth in path: "Help:Foo/bar/baz/../../../../quok" (tried to access a node above the root node).

#switch

This function compares one input value against several test cases, returning an associated string if a match is found.

{{#switch: comparison string
 | case = result
 | case = result
 | ...
 | case = result
 | default result
}}

Exemplos:

{{#switch: baz | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Baz
{{#switch: foo | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Foo
{{#switch: zzz | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Bar

#switch with partial transclusion tags can effect a configuration file that enables an editor unfamiliar with template coding to view and edit configurable elements.

Default

The default result is returned if no case string matches the comparison string:

{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Bar

In this syntax, the default result must be the last parameter and must not contain a raw equals sign.

{{#switch: test | Bar | foo = Foo | baz = Baz }} →
{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | B=ar }} →

Alternatively, the default result may be explicitly declared with a case string of "#default".

{{#switch: comparison string
 | case = result
 | case = result
 | ...
 | case = result
 | #default = default result
}}

Default results declared in this way may be placed anywhere within the function:

{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | #default = Bar | baz = Baz }} Bar

If the default parameter is omitted and no match is made, no result is returned:

{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | baz = Baz }}

Grouping results

It is possible to have 'fall through' values, where several case strings return the same result string. This minimizes duplication.

{{#switch: comparison string
 | case1 = result1
 | case2 
 | case3 
 | case4 = result234
 | case5 = result5
 | case6 
 | case7 = result67
 | #default = default result
}}

Here cases 2, 3 and 4 all return result234; cases 6 and 7 both return result67

Comparison behavior

As with #ifeq, the comparison is made numerically if both the comparison string and the case string being tested are numeric; or as a case-sensitive string otherwise:

{{#switch: 0 + 1 | 1 = one | 2 = two | three}} → three
{{#switch: {{#expr: 0 + 1}} | 1 = one | 2 = two | three}} → one
{{#switch: a | a = A | b = B | C}} → A
{{#switch: A | a = A | b = B | C}} → C

A case string may be empty:

{{#switch: | = Nothing | foo = Foo | Something }}Nothing

Once a match is found, subsequent cases are ignored:

{{#switch: b | f = Foo | b = Bar | b = Baz | }}Bar
Aviso Aviso: Numerical comparisons with #switch and #ifeq are not equivalent to comparisons in expressions (see also above):
{{#switch: 12345678901234567 | 12345678901234568 = A | B}} → B
{{#ifexpr: 12345678901234567 = 12345678901234568 | A | B}} → A

Raw equal signs

"Case" strings cannot contain raw equals signs. To work around this, create a template {{=}} containing a single equals sign: =, or replace equals sign with html code &#61;.

Exemplo:

{{#switch: 1=2
 | 1=2 = raw
 | 1<nowiki>=</nowiki>2 = nowiki
 | 1{{=}}2 = template
 | default
}}template


{{#switch: 1=2
 | 1&#61;2 = html
 | default
}}html

Nota Nota: For a simple real life example of the use of this function, check Template:NBA color. Two complex examples can be found at Template:Extension and Template:BOTREQ.

Replacing #ifeq

#switch can be used to reduce expansion depth.

Por exemplo:

  • {{#switch:{{{1}}} |condition1=branch1 |condition2=branch2 |condition3=branch3 |branch4}}

is equivalent to

  • {{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition1 |branch1 |{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition2 |branch2 |{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition3 |branch3 |branch4}}}}}}

i.e. deep nesting, linear:

{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition1
  |<!--then-->branch1
  |<!--else-->{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition2
                |<!--then-->branch2
                |<!--else-->{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition3
                              |<!--then-->branch3
                              |<!--else-->branch4}}}}}}

On the other hand, the switch replacement could be complicated/impractical for IFs nested in both branches (shown with alternatives of indentation, indented on both sides), making full symmetrical tree:

{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition1
 |<!--then-->branch1t{{
  #ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition2
   |<!--then-->branch1t2t{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition4|<!--then-->branch1t2t4t|<!--else-->branch1t2t4e}}
   |<!--else-->branch1t2e{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition5|<!--then-->branch1t2e5t|<!--else-->branch1t2e5e}}
  }}
 |<!--else-->branch1e{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition3
   |<!--then-->branch1e3t{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition6|branch1e3t6t|branch1e3t6e}}
   |<!--else-->branch1e3e{{
    #ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition7
     |branch1e3e7t
     |branch1e3e7t
    }}
  }}
}}

#time

Código Descrição Current output
(Purge this page's cache to update)
Ano
Y 4-digit year. 2018
y 2-digit year. 18
L 1 if it's a leap year, 0 if not. 0
o[note 1] ISO-8601 year of the specified week.[note 2] 2018[note 3]
  1. Requires PHP 5.1.0 and newer and rev:45208.
  2. This has the same value as Y, except that if the ISO week number (W) belongs to the previous or next year, that year is used instead.
  3. Will output literal o if note 1 not fulfilled.
Mês
n Month index, not zero-padded. 10
m Month index, zero-padded. 10
M An abbreviation of the month name, in the site language. out.
F The full month name in the site language. outubro
xg Output the full month name in the genitive form for site languages that distinguish between genitive and nominative forms. This option is useful for many Slavic languages like Polish, Russian, Belarusian, Czech, Slovak, Slovene, Ukrainian, etc. For Polish:
{{#time:F Y|June 2010|pl}} → czerwiec 2010
(nominative)
{{#time:d xg Y|20 June 2010|pl}} → 20 czerwca 2010
(genitive)
Dia
j Day of the month, not zero-padded. 17
d Day of the month, zero-padded. 17
z Day of the year (January 1 = 0).
Nota Nota: To get the ISO day of the year add 1.
289
Semana
W ISO 8601 week number, zero-padded. 42
N ISO 8601 day of the week (Monday = 1, Sunday = 7). 3
w Number of the day of the week (Sunday = 0, Saturday = 6). 3
D An abbreviation for the day of the week. Rarely internationalized. qua
l The full weekday name. Rarely internationalized. quarta-feira
Hora
a "am" during the morning (00:00:00 → 11:59:59), "pm" otherwise (12:00:00 → 23:59:59). am
A Uppercase version of a above. AM
g Hour in 12-hour format, not zero-padded. 10
h Hour in 12-hour format, zero-padded. 10
G Hour in 24-hour format, not zero-padded. 10
H Hour in 24-hour format, zero-padded. 10
Minutes and seconds
i Minutes past the hour, zero-padded. 29
s Seconds past the minute, zero-padded. 50
U Unix time. Seconds since January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT. 1539772190
Timezone (as of 1.22wmf2)
e Timezone identifier. UTC
I Whether or not the date is in daylight savings time. 0
O Difference to Greenwich time (GMT) +0000
P Difference to Greenwich time (GMT), with colon +00:00
T Timezone abbreviation. UTC
Z Timezone offset in seconds. 0
Miscellaneous
t Number of days in the current month. 31
c ISO 8601 formatted date, equivalent to Y-m-d"T"H:i:s+00:00. 2018-10-17T10:29:50+00:00
r RFC 5322 formatted date, equivalent to D, j M Y H:i:s +0000, with weekday name and month name not internationalized. Wed, 17 Oct 2018 10:29:50 +0000
Non-Gregorian calendars
Islamic
xmj Day of the month. 6
xmF Full month name. Safar
xmn Month index. 2
xmY Full year. 1440
Iranian (Jalaly)
xit Number of days in the month. 30
xiz Day of the year. 210
xij Day of the month. 25
xiF Full month name. Mehr
xin Month index. 7
xiY Full year. 1397
xiy 2-digit year. 97
Hebrew
xjj Day of the month. 8
xjF Full month name. Cheshvan
xjt Number of days in month. 30
xjx Genitive form of the month name. Cheshvan
xjn Month number. 2
xjY Full year. 5779
Thai solar
xkY Full year in Thai solar calendar.
Nota Nota: For years before 1941 the dates in Jan-Mar range are not calculated properly.
2561
Minguo/Juche year
xoY Full year. 107
Japanese nengo
xtY Full year. 平成30
Flags
xn Format the next numeric code as a raw ASCII number. In the Hindi language, {{#time:H, xnH}} produces ०६, 06.
xN Like xn, but as a toggled flag, which endures until the end of the string or until the next appearance of xN in the string.
xr Format the next number as a roman numeral. Only works for numbers up to 10,000
(upto 3,000 in pre MediaWiki 1.20).
{{#time:xrY}} → MMXVIII
xh Format the next number as a Hebrew numeral. {{#time:xhY}} → ב'י"ח

This parser function takes a date and/or time (in the Gregorian calendar) and formats it according to the syntax given. A date/time object can be specified; the default is the value of the magic word {{CURRENTTIMESTAMP}} – that is, the time the page was last rendered into HTML.

{{#time: format string }}
{{#time: format string | date/time object }}
{{#time: format string | date/time object | language code }}

The list of accepted formatting codes is given in the table to the right. Any character in the formatting string that is not recognized is passed through unaltered; this applies also to blank spaces (the system does not need them for interpreting the codes). There are also two ways to escape characters within the formatting string:

  1. A backslash followed by a formatting character is interpreted as a single literal character
  2. Characters enclosed in double quotes are considered literal characters, and the quotes are removed.

In addition, the digraph xx is interpreted as a single literal "x".

{{#time: Y-m-d }}2018-10-17
{{#time: [[Y]] m d }}2018 10 17
{{#time: [[Y (year)]] }}2018 (18UTCamWed, 17 Oct 2018 10:29:50 +0000)
{{#time: [[Y "(year)"]] }}2018 (year)
{{#time: i's" }}29'50"

The date/time object can be in any format accepted by PHP's strtotime() function. Both absolute (eg 20 December 2000) and relative (eg +20 hours) times are accepted.

{{#time: r|now}}Wed, 17 Oct 2018 10:29:50 +0000
{{#time: r|+2 hours}}Wed, 17 Oct 2018 12:29:50 +0000
{{#time: r|now + 2 hours}}Wed, 17 Oct 2018 12:29:50 +0000
{{#time: r|20 December 2000}}Wed, 20 Dec 2000 00:00:00 +0000
{{#time: r|December 20, 2000}}Wed, 20 Dec 2000 00:00:00 +0000
{{#time: r|2000-12-20}}Wed, 20 Dec 2000 00:00:00 +0000
{{#time: r|2000 December 20}}Error: Invalid time.

The language code in ISO 639-3 (?) allows the string to be displayed in the chosen language

{{#time:d F Y|1988-02-28|nl}}28 februari 1988
{{#time:l|now|uk}}середа
{{#time:d xg Y|20 June 2010|pl}}20 czerwca 2010

If you've calculated a Unix timestamp, you may use it in date calculations by pre-pending an @ symbol.

{{#time: U | now }}1539772190
{{#time: r | @1539772190 }}Wed, 17 Oct 2018 10:29:50 +0000
Aviso Aviso: Without the @ prefix before numeric timestamp values, the result is an error most of the time, or is an unexpected value:
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 00:16:39 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:39 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 00:16:39 }}999
{{#time: r | @999 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:39 +0000 (correct)
{{#time: r | 999 }}Error: Invalid time. (unsupported year format)
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 00:16:40 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:40 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 00:16:40 }}1000
{{#time: r | @1000 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:40 +0000 (correct)
{{#time: r | 1000 }}Fri, 17 Oct 1000 00:00:00 +0000 (interpreted as a year with current month and day of the month)
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 02:46:39 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:39 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 02:46:39 }}9999
{{#time: r | @9999 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:39 +0000 (correct)
{{#time: r | 9999 }}Sun, 17 Oct 9999 00:00:00 +0000 (interpreted as a year with current month and day of the month)
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 02:46:40 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:40 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 02:46:40 }}10000
{{#time: r | @10000 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:40 +0000 (correct)
{{#time: r | 10000 }}Error: Invalid time. (unsupported year format)
Aviso Aviso: The range of acceptable input is 1 January 0111 → 31 December 9999. For the years 100 through 110 the output is inconsistent, Y and leap years are like the years 100-110, r, D, l and U are like interpreting these years as 2000-2010.

{{#time: d F Y | 29 Feb 0100 }}01 março 0100
(correct, no leap year), but
{{#time: r | 29 Feb 0100 }}Mon, 01 Mar 0100 00:00:00 +0000 (wrong, even if 100 is interpreted as 2000, because that is a leap year)
{{#time: d F Y | 15 April 10000 }}Error: Invalid time.
{{#time: r | 10000-4-15 }}Sat, 15 Apr 2000 10:00:00 +0000

Year numbers 0-99 are interpreted as 2000-2069 and 1970-1999, except when written in 4-digit format with leading zeros:
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 6 }}01 janeiro 2006
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 06 }}01 janeiro 2006
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 006 }}01 janeiro 2006
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 0006 }}01 janeiro 0006 (4-digit format)

The weekday is supplied for the years 100-110 and from 1753, for the years 111-1752 the r-output shows "Unknown" and the l-output "<>". As a consequence, the r-output is not accepted as input for these years.

Full or partial absolute dates can be specified; the function will "fill in" parts of the date that are not specified using the current values:

{{#time: Y | January 1 }}2018
Aviso Aviso: The fill-in feature is not consistent; some parts are filled in using the current values, others are not:

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | June }}2018 06 17 00:00:00 Gives the start of the day, but the current day of the month and the current year.

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 2003 }}2003 10 17 00:00:00 Gives the start of the day, but the current day of the year.

A four-digit number is always interpreted as a year, never as hours and minutes:[1]

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 1959 }}1959 10 17 00:00:00

A six-digit number is interpreted as hours, minutes and seconds if possible, but otherwise as an error (not, for instance, a year and month):

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 195909 }}2018 10 17 19:59:09 Input is treated as a time rather than a year+month code.
{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 196009 }}Error: Invalid time. Although 19:60:09 is not a valid time, 196009 is not interpreted as September 1960.

The function performs a certain amount of date mathematics:

{{#time: d F Y | January 0 2008 }}31 dezembro 2007
{{#time: d F | January 32 }}Error: Invalid time.
{{#time: d F | February 29 2008 }}29 fevereiro
{{#time: d F | February 29 2007 }}01 março
{{#time:Y-F|now -1 months}}2018-setembro

The total length of the format strings of the calls of #time is limited to 6000 characters[2].

Time Zone issue

There is a bug in this #time parser function (more specifically in PHP DateTime) that does not allow the passing-in of non-integers as relative time zone offsets. This issue does not apply when using an on-the-hour time zone, such as EDT. For example:

  • {{#time:g:i A | -4 hours }} ==> 6:29 AM

However, Venezuela is on a -4.5 hours time offset from UTC, and thus using its time zone will not normally allow the correct calculation of a relative time zone offset. Here's what happens:

  • {{#time:g:i A | -4.5 hours }} ==> 7:29 PM

To workaround this issue, simply convert the time into minutes or seconds, like this:

  • {{#time:g:i A | -270 minutes }} ==> 5:59 AM
  • {{#time:g:i A | -16200 seconds }} ==> 5:59 AM

(Tim Starling, the developer of this function, provided the exact syntax for this solution.)

#timel

This function is identical to {{#time: ... }}, except that it uses the local time of the wiki (as set in $wgLocaltimezone) when no date is given.

{{#time: Y-m-d }}2018-10-17
{{#timel: Y-m-d }}2018-10-17
{{#time: Y F d H:i:s}}2018 outubro 17 10:29:50
{{#timel: Y F d H:i:s}}2018 outubro 17 10:29:50
Aviso Aviso: Be aware that U for both time and timel will return the same number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC on Wikipedias with different timezones than UTC (formerly known as GMT)
U Unix time. Seconds since January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT.
Z Timezone offset in seconds.
{{#time: U}}1539772190
{{#timel: U}}1539772190
{{#time: Z}}0
{{#timel: Z}}0

#titleparts

This function separates a page title into segments based on slashes, then returns some of those segments as output.

{{#titleparts: pagename | number of segments to return | first segment to return }}

If the number of segments to return parameter is not specified, it defaults to "0", which returns all the segments from the first segment to return (included). If the first segment to return parameter is not specified or is "0", it defaults to "1":

{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok }}Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | 1 }}Talk:Foo See also {{ROOTPAGENAMEHelp:Magic_words#Page_names}}.
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | 2 }}Talk:Foo/bar
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | 2 | 2 }}bar/baz
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | | 2 }}bar/baz/quok
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | | 5 }}

Negative values are accepted for both values. Negative values for the number of segments to return parameter effectively 'strips' segments from the end of the string. Negative values for the first segment to return translates to "start with this segment counting from the right":

{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -1 }}Talk:Foo/bar/baz Strips one segment from the end of the string. See also {{BASEPAGENAME}}.
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -4 }} Strips all 4 segments from the end of the string
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -5 }} Strips 5 segments from the end of the string (more than exist)
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | | -1 }} quok Returns last segment. See also {{SUBPAGENAME}}.
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -1 | 2 }} bar/baz Strips one segment from the end of the string, then returns the second segment and beyond
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -1 | -2 }} baz Start copying at the second last element; strip one segment from the end of the string

Before processing, the pagename parameter is HTML-decoded: if it contains some standard HTML character entities, they will be converted to plain characters (internally encoded with UTF-8, i.e. the same encoding as in the MediaWiki source page using this parser function).

For example, any occurence of &quot;, &#34;, or &#x22; in pagename will be replaced by ".
No other conversion from HTML to plain text is performed, so HTML tags are left intact at this initial step even if they are invalid in page titles.
Some magic keywords or parser functions of MediaWiki (such as {{PAGENAMEHelp:Magic words#Page names}} and similar) are known to return strings that are needlessly HTML-encoded, even if their own input parameter was not HTML-encoded:

The titleparts parser function can then be used as a workaround, to convert these returned strings so that they can be processed correctly by some other parser functions also taking a page name in parameter (such as {{PAGESINCAT:Help:Magic words#PAGESINCAT}} but which are still not working properly with HTML-encoded input strings.

For example, if the current page is Category:Côte-d'Or, then:

  • {{#ifeq: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d'Or | 1 | 0 }}, and {{#ifeq: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d&apos;Or | 1 | 0 }} are both returning 1; (the #ifeq parser function does perform the HTML-decoding of its input parameters).
  • {{#switch: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d'Or = 1 | #default = 0 }}, and {{#switch: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d&apos;Or = 1 | #default = 0 }} are both returning 1; (the #switch parser function does perform the HTML-decoding of its input parameters).
  • {{#ifexist: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | 1 | 0 }}, {{#ifexist: Category:Côte-d'Or | 1 | 0 }}, or even {{#ifexist: Category:Côte-d&apos;Or | 1 | 0 }} will all return 1 if that category page exists (the #ifexist parser function does perform the HTML-decoding of its input parameters);
  • {{PAGESINCAT: Côte-d'Or }} will return a non-zero number, if that category contains pages or subcategories, but:
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{CURRENTPAGENAME}} }}, may still unconditionally return 0, just like:
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d'Or}} }}
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d&apos;Or}} }}

The reason of this unexpected behavior is that, with the current versions of Mediawiki, there are two caveats:

  • {{FULLPAGENAME}}, or even {{FULLPAGENAME|Côte-d'Or}} may return the actually HTML-encoded string Category:Côte-d&apos;Or and not the expected Category:Côte-d'Or, and that:
  • {{PAGESINCAT: Côte-d&apos;Or }} unconditionally returns 0 (the PAGESINCAT magic keyword does not perform any HTML-decoding of its input parameter).

The simple workaround using titleparts (which will continue to work if the two caveats are fixed in a later version of MediaWiki) is:

  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{#titleparts: {{CURRENTPAGENAME}} }} }}
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{#titleparts: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d'Or}} }} }}
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{#titleparts: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d&apos;Or}} }} }}, that all return the actual number of pages in the same category.

Then the decoded pagename is canonicalized into a standard page title supported by MediaWiki, as much as possible:

  1. All underscores are automatically replaced with spaces:
    {{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bah_boo|1|2}}bah boo Not bah_boo, despite the underscore in the original.
  2. The string is split a maximum of 25 times; further slashes are ignored and the 25th element will contain the rest of the string. The string is also limited to 255 characters, as it is treated as a page title:
    {{#titleparts: a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j/k/l/m/n/o/p/q/r/s/t/u/v/w/x/y/z/aa/bb/cc/dd/ee | 1 | 25 }}y/z/aa/bb/cc/dd/ee
    If for whatever reason you needed to push this function to its limit, although very unlikely, it is possible to bypass the 25 split limit by nesting function calls:
    {{#titleparts: {{#titleparts: a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j/k/l/m/n/o/p/q/r/s/t/u/v/w/x/y/z/aa/bb/cc/dd/ee| 1 | 25 }} | 1 | 2}}z
  3. Finally the first substring is capitalized according to the capitalization settings of the local wiki (if that substring also starts by a local namespace name, that namespace name is also normalized).
    {{#titleparts: talk:a/b/c }}Talk:A/b/c
Aviso Aviso: You can use #titleparts as a small "string parser and converter", but consider that it returns the first substring capitalized:
{{#titleparts: one/two/three/four|1|1 }}One
{{#titleparts: one/two/three/four|1|2 }}two

If lower case is needed, use lc: function to control output:

{{lc: {{#titleparts: one/two/three/four|1|1 }} }}one

You can prepend a 'dummy' slash at the beginning of the string to get the correct first substring capitalization (uppercase or lowercase). Use 2 instead of 1 for first segment to return:

{{#titleparts: /one/two/three/four|1|2 }}one
{{#titleparts: /One/two/three/four|1|2 }}One
Aviso Aviso: Certain characters that are illegal in a page title will cause #titleparts to not parse the string:
{{#titleparts: {one/two} | 1 | 1 }}{one/two}. Does not produce the expected: {one
{{#titleparts: [[page]]/123 | 1 | 2 }}page/123. Does not work because brackets are illegal in page titles and this parser function does not process links embedded in its input pagename parameter, even when they use the MediaWiki syntax, or any other HTML or MediaWiki tags.
{{#titleparts: red/#00FF00/blue | 1 | 3 }} → "". Does not work because "#" is also illegal in page titles.
Aviso Aviso: If any part of the title is just "." or "..", #titleparts will not parse the string:
{{#titleparts: one/./three | 1 | 1 }}one/./three. The whole string is returned. It does not produce the expected: one
Aviso Aviso: This function does not degrade gracefully if the input exceeds 255 characters. If the input string is 256 characters long or more, the whole string is returned.


General points

Substitution

Parser functions can be substituted by prefixing the hash character with subst::

{{subst:#ifexist: Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt | [[Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt]] | Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt }} → the code [[Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt]] will be inserted in the wikitext since the page Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/pt exists.
Aviso Aviso: The results of substituted parser functions are undefined if the expressions contain unsubstituted volatile code such as variables or other parser functions. For consistent results, all the volatile code in the expression to be evaluated must be substituted. See Help:Substitution.

Substitution does not work within <ref></ref>Extension:Cite#Substitution and embedded parser functions, you can use {{subst:#tag:ref|}} for this purpose.

Redirects

Especially {{#time:…|now-…}} could be handy in redirects to pages including dates, but this does not work.

Escaping pipe characters in tables

Parser functions will mangle wikitable syntax and pipe characters (|), treating all the raw pipe characters as parameter dividers. To avoid this, most wikis used a template Template:! with its contents only a raw pipe character (|), since MW 1.24 a {{!}} magic word replaced this kludge. This 'hides' the pipe from the MediaWiki parser, ensuring that it is not considered until after all the templates and variables on a page have been expanded. It will then be interpreted as a table row or column separator. Alternatively, raw HTML table syntax can be used, although this is less intuitive and more error-prone.

You can also escape the pipe character for display as a plain, uninterpreted character using an HTML entity: &#124; .

Descrição You type You get
Escaping pipe character as table row/column separator
{{!}}
|
Escaping pipe character as a plain character
&#124;
|


Remoção de espaço vazio

Whitespace, including newlines, tabs, and spaces, is stripped from the beginning and end of all the parameters of these parser functions. If this is not desirable, comparison of strings can be done after putting them in quotation marks.

{{#ifeq: foo           |           foo | equal | not equal }}equal
{{#ifeq: "foo          " | "          foo" | equal | not equal }}not equal

To prevent the trimming of then and else parts, see m:Template:If. Some people achieve this by using <nowiki> </nowiki> instead of spaces.

foo{{#if:|| bar }}foofoobarfoo
foo{{#if:||<nowiki /> bar <nowiki />}}foofoo bar foo

However, this method can be used to render a single whitespace character only, since the parser squeezes multiple whitespace characters in a row into one.

<span style="white-space: pre;">foo{{#if:||<nowiki></nowiki>      bar      <nowiki></nowiki>}}foo</span>foo bar foo

In this example, the white-space: pre style is used to force the whitespace to be preserved by the browser, but even with it the spaces are not shown. This happens because the spaces are stripped by the software, before being sent to the browser.

It is possible to workaround this behavior replacing whitespaces with &#32; (breakable space) or &nbsp; (non-breakable space), since they are not modified by the software:

<span style="white-space: pre;">foo{{#if:||&#32;&#32;&#32;bar&#32;&#32;&#32;}}foo</span>foo bar foo
foo{{#if:||&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bar&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}foofoo   bar   foo


Ver também

References

  1. Prior to r86805 in 2011 this was not the case.
  2. ExtParserFunctions.php at phabricator.wikimedia.org