Hilfe:Erweiterung:ParserFunctions

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Die Erweiterung Erweiterung:ParserFunctions bietet elf zusätzliche Parserfunktionen, um die "Magic words" zu ergänzen, die es in MediaWiki bereits gibt. (Sie kann konfiguriert werden, um zusätzliche Parser-Funktionen zur Vearbeitung von Strings zur Verfügung zu stellen, diese sind anderswo dokumentiert.) Alle Funktionen, die diese Erweiterung unterstützt, haben folgende Form:

{{#Funktionsname: Parameter 1 | Parameter 2 | Parameter 3 ... }}

#expr

Art Operatoren
Gruppieren (Klammern) ( )
Zahlen 1234.5   e (2.718)   pi (3.142)
Binärer Operator e   unäre +,-
Unäre Operatoren not ceil trunc floor abs exp ln sin cos tan acos asin atan
Binäre Operatoren ^
* / div mod
+ -
Runden round
Logische Operatoren = != <> > < >= <=
and
or

Diese Funktion berechnet einen mathematischen Ausdruck und gibt den errechneten Wert aus. Diese Funktion steht über die mw.ext.ParserFunctions.expr-Funktion auch in Erweiterung:Scribunto zur Verfügung.

{{#expr: Ausdruck }}

Die verfügbaren Operatoren sind rechts aufgelistet, in der Reihenfolge ihrer Anwedung. Siehe Help:Calculation (englisch) für nähere Details über die Funktion der einzelnen Operatoren. Genauigkeit und Format des ausgegebenen Ergebnisses hängen vom Betriebssystem des Wikiservers sowie dem Zahlenformat der eingestellten Sprache ab.

Bei Nutzung der Booleschen Algebra ergibt 0 immer falsch und jeder andere Wert, ob positiv oder negativ, immer wahr:

{{#expr: 1 and -1 }}1
{{#expr: 1 and 0 }}0
{{#expr: 1 or -1 }}1
{{#expr: -1 or 0 }}1
{{#expr: 0 or 0 }}0

Ein leerer eingegebener Ausdruck erzeugt eine leere Ausgabe. Ungültige Ausdrücke erzeugen eine von mehreren möglichen Fehlermeldungen, die durch Nutzung der Funktion #iferror abgefangen werden können:

{{#expr: }}
{{#expr: 1+ }}Expression error: Missing operand for +.
{{#expr: 1 = }}Expression error: Missing operand for =.
{{#expr: 1 foo 2 }}Expression error: Unrecognized word "foo".

Die Reihenfolge der Additions- und Subtraktionsoperanden vor oder nach einer Zahl ist bedeutend und kann als positiver oder negativer Wert eingesetzt werden anstelle eines Operanden mit fehlerhafter Eingabe:

{{#expr: +1 }}1
{{#expr: -1 }}-1
{{#expr: + 1 }}1
{{#expr: - 1 }}-1

Note, if using the output of magic words, you must raw-format them in order to remove commas and translate the numerals. For example, {{NUMBEROFUSERS}} results in 17.356.640, where we want 17356640, which can be obtained using {{formatnum :{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}|R}}. This is especially important in some languages, where numerals are translated. For example, in Bengali, {{NUMBEROFUSERS}} produces ৩০,০৬১.

{{#expr:{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}+100}} 117.356
{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{NUMBEROFUSERS}}|R}}+100}}17356740
Warnung Warnung: Der Operator mod ergibt bei einigen Werten des zweiten Parameters falsche Ergebnisse:
{{#expr: 123 mod (2^64-1)}}Division by zero. (erzeugt einen leeren String; sollte eigentlich 123 ergeben)
Sollen Rechnungen auf Basis von Datumsangaben angestellt werden (z.B. um zu testen, ob das aktuelle Datum und die Zeit nach einem anderen Datum und einer Zeit liegen), sollte die Zeit zuerst in die Anzahl der Sekunden nach 1. Jänner 1970 mit {{#time: xNU }} umgerechnet werden, danach können Daten einfach als Zahlen addiert und subtrahiert werden.

Runden

Rundet die Zahl links auf ein vielfaches von 1/10 hoch den gekürzten Wert der Zahl rechts.

Um auf- oder abzurunden benutze ceil bzw. floor.

Testfall Resultat Rundungsmethode
{{#expr: 1/3 round 5 }} 0.33333 Die endgültige Zahl ist <5, deshalb erscheint keine sichtbare Rundung
{{#expr: 1/6 round 5 }} 0.16667 Die endgültige Zahl ist >=5, deshalb wird sie aufgerundet
{{#expr: 8.99999/9 round 5 }} 1 Das Ergebnis wird noch einmal in der letzten Ziffer aufgerundet, was zusätzliche Rundung ergibt
{{#expr: 1234.5678 round -2 }} 1200 Gerundet auf die nächsten 100, da negative Werte links vom Dezimalkomma (hier Punkt) runden
{{#expr: 1234.5678 round 2 }} 1234.57 Gerundet auf die nächsten 100, da positive Werte rechts vom Dezimalkomma (hier Punkt) runden
{{#expr: 1234.5678 round 2.3 }} 1234.57 Dezimalstellen in der Rundungsangabe ergeben keinen Unterschied im gerundeten Ergebnis
{{#expr: trunc 1234.5678 }} 1234 Dezimalstellen abgeschnitten
Auf die nächste Ganzzahl (integer) runden
{{#expr: 1/3 round 0 }} 0 Abrunden auf die nächste Ganzzahl, hier Null
{{#expr: 1/2 round 0 }} 1 Aufrunden auf die nächste Ganzzahl, hier Eins
{{#expr: 3/4 round 0 }} 1 Aufrunden auf die nächste Ganzzahl, hier Eins
{{#expr: -1/3 round 0 }} -0 Aufrunden auf die nächste Ganzzahl, hier Null
{{#expr: -1/2 round 0 }} -1 Abrunden auf die nächste Ganzzahl, hier -1
{{#expr: -3/4 round 0 }} -1 Abrunden auf die nächste Ganzzahl, hier -1
Auf- oder Ab-Runden mit ceil und floor
{{#expr: ceil(1/3) }} 1 Aufrunden auf die nächste größere Ganzzahl, hier 1
{{#expr: floor(1/3) }} 0 Abrunden auf die nächste kleinere Ganzzahl, hier Null
{{#expr: ceil(-1/3) }} -0 Aufrunden auf die nächstgrößere Ganzzahl, hier Null
{{#expr: floor(-1/3) }} -1 Abrunden auf die nächst kleinere Ganzzahl, hier -1
{{#expr: ceil 1/3 }} 0.33333333333333 Nicht gerundet, da 1 schon eine Ganzzahl ist
Warnung Warnung: Wird interpretiert als (ceil 1)/3, nicht ceil(1/3), wie man erwarten würde

Strings

Die Ausdrücke funktionieren nur mit zahlenähnlichen Werten, denn sie können nicht Funktionen oder Zeichen vergleichen. #ifeq kann stattdessen verwendet werden.

{{#expr: "a" = "a" }}Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character """.
{{#expr: a = a }}Expression error: Unrecognized word "a".
{{#ifeq: a | a | 1 | 0 }}1

#if

Diese Funktion wertet einen Testring aus und stellt fest, ob er leer ist oder nicht. Ein Teststring, der nur Leerzeichen enthält, wird als leer betrachtet.

{{#if: Teststring | Wert, wenn der Testring nicht leer ist | Wert, wenn der Teststring leer ist (oder nur aus Leerzeichen besteht) }}
{{#if: erster Parameter | zweiter Parameter | dritter Parameter }}

Diese Funktion testet zuerst, ob der erste Parameter nicht leer ist. Wenn der erste Parameter nicht leer ist, zeigt die Funktion den zweiten Parameter. Wenn der erste Parameter leer ist oder nur Weißraumzeichen enthält (Leerzeichen, neue Zeilen etc.), wird der dritte Parameter ausgegeben.

{{#if: | yes | no}}no
{{#if: string | yes | no}}yes
{{#if:      | yes | no}}no
{{#if:


| yes | no}}
no

Der Testausdruck wird immer als reiner Text interpretiert, also werden mathematische Ausdrücke nicht evaluiert:

{{#if: 1==2 | yes | no }}yes
{{#if: 0 | yes | no }}yes

Der letzte Parameter (false) kann weggelassen werden:

{{#if: foo | yes }} yes
{{#if: | yes }}
{{#if: foo | | no}}

The function may be nested. To do so, nest the inner #if function in its full form in place of a parameter of the enclosing #if function. Up to seven levels of nesting is possible, although that may depend on the wiki or a memory limit.

{{#if: test string | value if test string is not empty | {{#if: test string | value if test string is not empty | value if test string is empty (or only white space) }} }}

You can also use a parameter as the test string in your #if statement. You need to ensure you add the | (pipe symbol) after the name of the variable. (So that if the parameter does not have a value, it evaluates to an empty string instead of the string "{{{1}}}".)

{{#if:{{{1|}}}|Du hast Text in der Variable 1 eingegeben|Es gibt keinen Text in der Variable 1 }}

Siehe Help:Parserfunktionen in Vorlagen für weitere Beispiele zu dieser Parserfunktion.

#ifeq

This parser function compares two input strings, determines whether they are identical, and returns one of two strings based on the result. If more comparisons and output strings are required, consider using #switch.

{{#ifeq: string 1 | string 2 | value if identical | value if different }}

Wenn beide Ausdrücke gültige numerische Werte sind, werden die Ausdrücke zahlenmäßig verglichen:

{{#ifeq: 01 | 1 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: 0 | -0 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: 1e3 | 1000 | equal | not equal}}equal
{{#ifeq: {{#expr:10^3}} | 1000 | equal | not equal}}equal

Andernfalls wird der Vergleich textmäßig vollzogen, dieser Vergleich beachtet die Groß- und Kleinschreibung:

{{#ifeq: foo | bar | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: foo | Foo | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: "01" | "1" | equal | not equal}}not equal  (vergleiche mit dem ähnlichen Beispiel oben, aber ohne Anführungszeichen)
{{#ifeq: 10^3 | 1000 | equal | not equal}}not equal  (vergleiche mit dem ähnlichen Beispiel oben, wo #expr eine gültige erste Zahl anzeigt)

As a practical example, consider an existing template Template:Timer using the parser to choose between two standard times, short and long. It takes the parameter as the first input to compare against the string "short" – there is no convention for the order, but it is simpler to read if the parameter goes first. The template code is defined as:

{{#ifeq: {{{1|}}} | short | 20 | 40 }}

the following ensue:

{{timer|short}}20
{{timer|20}}40
{{timer}}40
Warnung Warnung: #ifexpr does not report equivalent numerical comparisons with the #ifeq and #switch parsers. These latter two are more accurate than #ifexpr, and do not return equivalent results.

Consider these comparison with the final digit changed:

{{#ifeq: 12345678901234567 | 12345678901234568 | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#switch: 12345678901234567 | 12345678901234568 = equal | not equal}}not equal

Because PHP used in #ifeq and #switch compares two numbers of type integer, it returns the expected result correctly. Whereas with #ifexpr and the same numbers:

{{#ifexpr: 12345678901234567 = 12345678901234568 | equal | not equal}}equal

With the different digit, the result of equal is actually incorrect.

This behaviour in #ifexpr is caused because MediaWiki converts literal numbers in expressions to type float, which, for large integers like these, involves rounding.

Warnung Warnung: When used inside a parser function, any parser tags and other parser functions must be temporarily replaced with a unique code . This affects comparisons:
{{#ifeq: <nowiki>foo</nowiki> | <nowiki>foo</nowiki> | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: <math>foo</math> | <math>foo</math> | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: {{#tag:math|foo}} | {{#tag:math|foo}} | equal | not equal}}not equal
{{#ifeq: [[foo]] | [[foo]] | equal | not equal}}equal
If the strings to be compared are given as equal calls to the same template containing such tags, then the condition is true, but in the case of two templates with identical content containing such tags it is false.
Warnung Warnung: Literal comparisons to page-name magic words may fail depending on site configuration. For example, {{FULLPAGENAME}}, depending on wiki, may capitalize the first letter, and will replace all underscores with spaces.

To work around this, apply the magic word to both parameters:

{{#ifeq: {{FULLPAGENAME: L'Aquila}} | {{FULLPAGENAME}} | equal | not equal}}equal

#iferror

Diese Funktion überprüft, ob der eingegebene Ausdruck einen Fehler erzeugt. Die Funktion gibt true aus, wenn der Ausdruck ein HTML-Objekt mit class="error" enthält, wie es z.B. von den Funktionen #expr, #time und #rel2abs bei Fehlern ausgegeben wird. Auch Vorlagenfehler wie Rekursionsschleifen werden erkannt.

{{#iferror: test string | value if error | value if correct }}

Die Ausgabe-Parameter können auch weggelassen werden. Wenn der Parameter für "kein Fehler" weggelassen wird, wird der zu überprüfende Ausdruck ausgegeben, sofern er keinen Fehler enthält. Wenn der Ausdruck für "Fehler" ebenfalls weggelassen wird, wird bei einem Fehler nichts ausgegeben.

{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + 2 }} | error | correct }}correct
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + X }} | error | correct }}error
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + 2 }} | error }}3
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + X }} | error }}error
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + 2 }} }}3
{{#iferror: {{#expr: 1 + X }} }}
{{#iferror: {{#expr: . }} | error | correct }}correct
{{#iferror: <strong class="error">a</strong> | error | correct }}error

#ifexpr

Diese Funktion berechnet einen mathematischen Ausdruck und gibt – abhängig vom Wahrheitswert des Ergebnisses – einen von zwei Werten aus.

{{#ifexpr: expression | value if true | value if false }}

Für den Ausdruck expression gelten dabei dieselben Regeln wie bei #expr. Nach der Berechnung überprüft die Funktion, ob das Ergebnis ungleich Null ist (Boolesch: true = 1/false = 0).

Eine leere Eingabe führt zur Ausgabe false:

{{#ifexpr: | yes | no}}no

Wie gesagt führt das Ergebnis Null zur Ausgabe false, jeder andere Wert hingegen zur Ausgabe true. Es handelt sich also praktisch um eine Kombination von #ifeq und #expr:

{{#ifeq: {{#expr: expression }} | 0 | value if false | value if true }}

außer für einen leeren oder falsch eingegebenen Ausdruck (eine Fehlermeldung wird wie ein leerer Ausdruck behandelt; es ist nicht gleich Null, also bekommen wir Wert, wenn richtig).

{{#ifexpr: = | yes | no }} Expression error: Unexpected = operator.

vergleichend

{{#ifeq: {{#expr: = }} | 0 | no | yes }} yes

Beide Parameter können auch weggelassen werden, in diesem Fall wird jeweils nichts ausgegeben:

{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 | yes }}yes
{{#ifexpr: 1 < 0 | yes }}
{{#ifexpr: 0 = 0 | yes }} yes
{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 | | no}}
{{#ifexpr: 1 < 0 | | no}} no
{{#ifexpr: 1 > 0 }}

#ifexist

Diese Funktion überprüft, ob eine bestimmte Seite im Wiki existiert, und gibt je nachdem einen von zwei Parametern aus.

{{#ifexist: page title | value if exists | value if doesn't exist }}

Die Funktion überprüft nur, ob die Seite existiert (true), und nicht, ob sie irgendeine Form von Inhalt enthält. Auch Weiterleitungen werden als existente Seiten gewertet. Gelöschte Seiten gelten als nicht existent.

{{#ifexist: Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/de | exists | doesn't exist }}exists
{{#ifexist: XXHelp:Extension:ParserFunctions/deXX | exists | doesn't exist }}doesn't exist

MediaWiki-Systemnachrichten gelten so lange als nicht existent (false), bis sie bearbeitet werden. Auch die Existenz von Spezialseiten kann überprüft werden.

{{#ifexist: Special:Watchlist | exists | doesn't exist }}exists
{{#ifexist: Special:CheckUser | exists | doesn't exist }}exists (weil die Erweiterung Checkuser in diesem Wiki installiert ist)
{{#ifexist: MediaWiki:Copyright | exists | doesn't exist }}exists (weil MediaWiki:Copyright bearbeitet wurde)

Wenn eine Seite A die Existenz einer Seite B mittels #ifexist: überprüft, taucht Seite A auf der Spezialseite Spezial:Links auf diese Seite für Seite B auf. Wenn also im Artikel Bla der Code {{#ifexist: Blubb}} steht, wird auf Spezial:Links auf diese Seite/Blubb die Seite Bla aufgelistet.

In Wikis, die eine gemeinschaftliche Bilddatenbank nutzen (z.B. Wikimedia Commons), kann #ifexist: benutzt werden, um zu überprüfen, ob Dateien im lokalen Wiki oder in der externen Bilddatenbank hochgeladen wurden.

{{#ifexist: File:Example.png | exists | doesn't exist }}doesn't exist
{{#ifexist: Image:Example.png | exists | doesn't exist }}doesn't exist
{{#ifexist: Media:Example.png | exists | doesn't exist }}exists

Wenn die lokale Bildbeschreibungsseite angelegt wurde, ist das Resultat für all diese Tests existiert.

#ifexist: funktioniert nicht bei Interwiki-Links.

Grenzen von ifexist

#ifexist: wird als „aufwendige Parserfunktion“ eingestuft; nur eine bestimmte Anzahl von ihnen kann auf einer bestimmten Seite eingebunden werden (Funktionen in eingebundenen Vorlagen eingeschlossen). Wenn dieses Limit überschritten wird, geben weitere #ifexist:-Funktionen automatisch falsch zurück, unabhängig davon ob die Zielseite existiert oder nicht, und die Seite wird in Category:Pages with too many expensive parser function calls eingeordnet. Der Name der Wartungskategorie kann von der Inhaltssprache deines Wikis abhängen.

For some use cases it is possible to emulate the ifexist effect with css, by using the selectors a.new (to select links to unexisting pages) or a:not(.new) (to select links to existing pages). Furthermore, since the number of expensive parser functions that can be used on a single page is controlled by $wgExpensiveParserFunctionLimit , one can also increase the limit in LocalSettings.php if needed.

ifexist and wanted pages

A page that does not exist and is tested for using #ifexist will end up on the Wanted Pages.

#rel2abs

Diese Funktion konvertiert einen relativen Pfad zu einem absoluten Pfad.

{{#rel2abs: path }}
{{#rel2abs: path | base path }}

Within the path input, the following syntax is valid:

  • . → the current level
  • .. → go up one level
  • /foo → go down one level into the subdirectory /foo

If the base path is not specified, the full page name of the page will be used instead:

{{#rel2abs: /quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/baz/quok
{{#rel2abs: ./quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/baz/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../. | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar

Invalid syntax, such as /. or /./, is ignored. Since no more than two consecutive full stops are permitted, sequences such as these can be used to separate successive statements:

{{#rel2abs: ../quok/. | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/bar/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Help:Foo/quok
{{#rel2abs: ../../../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}quok
{{#rel2abs: ../../../../quok | Help:Foo/bar/baz }}Error: Invalid depth in path: "Help:Foo/bar/baz/../../../../quok" (tried to access a node above the root node).

#switch

See also : w:Help:Switch parser function

This function compares one input value against several test cases, returning an associated string if a match is found.

{{#switch: comparison string
 | case = result
 | case = result
 | ...
 | case = result
 | default result
}}

Beispiele:

{{#switch: baz | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Baz
{{#switch: foo | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Foo
{{#switch: zzz | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Bar

#switch with partial transclusion tags can affect a configuration file that enables an editor unfamiliar with template coding to view and edit configurable elements.

Default

The default result is returned if no case string matches the comparison string:

{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Bar

In this syntax, the default result must be the last parameter and must not contain a raw equals sign (an equals sign without {{}}). If it does, it will be treated as a case comparison, and no text will display if no cases match. This is because the default value has not been defined (is empty). If a case matches however, its associated string will be returned.

{{#switch: test | Bar | foo = Foo | baz = Baz }} →
{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | B=ar }} →
{{#switch: test | test = Foo | baz = Baz | B=ar }} → Foo

Alternatively, the default result may be explicitly declared with a case string of "#default".

{{#switch: comparison string
 | case = result
 | case = result
 | ...
 | case = result
 | #default = default result
}}

Default results declared in this way may be placed anywhere within the function:

{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | #default = Bar | baz = Baz }} Bar

If the default parameter is omitted and no match is made, no result is returned:

{{#switch: test | foo = Foo | baz = Baz }}

Ergebnisse gruppieren

It is possible to have 'fall through' values, where several case strings return the same result string. This minimizes duplication.

{{#switch: comparison string
 | case1 = result1
 | case2 
 | case3 
 | case4 = result234
 | case5 = result5
 | case6 
 | case7 = result67
 | #default = default result
}}

Here cases 2, 3 and 4 all return result234; cases 6 and 7 both return result67. The "#default = " in the last parameter may be omitted in the above case.

Use with parameters

The function may be used with parameters as the test string. In this case, it is not necessary to place the pipe after the parameter name, because it is very unlikely that you will choose to set a case to be the string "{{{parameter name}}}". (This is the value the parameter will default to if the pipe is absent and the parameter doesn't exist or have a value. See Help:Parserfunktionen in Vorlagen .)

{{#switch: {{{1}}} | foo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }}

In the above case, if {{{1}}} equals foo, the function will return Foo. If it equals baz, the function will return Baz. If the parameter is empty or does not exist, the function will return Bar.

As in the section above, cases can be combined to give a single result.

{{#switch: {{{1}}} | foo | zoo | roo = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }}

Here, if {{{1}}} equals foo, zoo or roo, the function will return Foo. If it equals baz, the function will return Baz. If the parameter is empty or does not exist, the function will return Bar.

Additionally, the default result can be omitted if you do not wish to return anything if the test parameter value does not match any of the cases.

{{#switch: {{{1}}} | foo = Foo | bar = Bar }}

In this case, the function returns an empty string unless {{{1}}} exists and equals foo or bar, in which case it returns Foo or Bar, respectively.

This has the same effect as declaring the default result as empty.

{{#switch: {{{1}}} | foo | zoo | roo = Foo | baz = Baz | }}

If for some reason you decide to set a case as "{{{parameter name}}}", the function will return that case's result when the parameter doesn't exist or doesn't have a value. The parameter would have to exist and have a value other than the string "{{{parameter name}}}" to return the function's default result.

(when {{{1}}} doesn't exist or is empty):
{{#switch: {{{1}}} | {{{1}}} = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Foo
(when {{{1}}} has the value "test"):
{{#switch: {{{1}}} | {{{1}}} = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Bar
(when {{{1}}} has the value "{{{1}}}"):
{{#switch: {{{1}}} | {{{1}}} = Foo | baz = Baz | Bar }} Foo


In this hypothetical case, you would need to add the pipe to the parameter ({{{1|}}}).

Vergleiche

As with #ifeq, the comparison is made numerically if both the comparison string and the case string being tested are numeric; or as a case-sensitive string otherwise:

{{#switch: 0 + 1 | 1 = one | 2 = two | three}} → three
{{#switch: {{#expr: 0 + 1}} | 1 = one | 2 = two | three}} → one
{{#switch: a | a = A | b = B | C}} → A
{{#switch: A | a = A | b = B | C}} → C

A case string may be empty:

{{#switch: | = Nothing | foo = Foo | Something }}Nothing

Once a match is found, subsequent cases are ignored:

{{#switch: b | f = Foo | b = Bar | b = Baz | }}Bar
Warnung Warnung: Numerical comparisons with #switch and #ifeq are not equivalent to comparisons in expressions (see also above):
{{#switch: 12345678901234567 | 12345678901234568 = A | B}} → B
{{#ifexpr: 12345678901234567 = 12345678901234568 | A | B}} → A

Ist-Gleich-Zeichen

"Case" strings cannot contain raw equals signs. To work around this, create a template {{=}} containing a single equals sign: =, or replace equals sign with html code &#61;.

Beispiel:

{{#switch: 1=2
 | 1=2 = raw
 | 1<nowiki>=</nowiki>2 = nowiki
 | 1{{=}}2 = template
 | default
}}template


{{#switch: 1=2
 | 1&#61;2 = html
 | default
}}html
For a simple real life example of the use of this function, check Template:NBA color. Two complex examples can be found at Vorlage:Erweiterung and w:Template:BOTREQ.

#ifeq ersetzen

#switch can be used to reduce expansion depth.

Zum Beispiel:

  • {{#switch:{{{1}}} |condition1=branch1 |condition2=branch2 |condition3=branch3 |branch4}}

ist gleichbedeutend mit

  • {{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition1 |branch1 |{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition2 |branch2 |{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition3 |branch3 |branch4}}}}}}

i.e. deep nesting, linear:

{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition1
  |<!--then-->branch1
  |<!--else-->{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition2
                |<!--then-->branch2
                |<!--else-->{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition3
                              |<!--then-->branch3
                              |<!--else-->branch4}}}}}}

On the other hand, the switch replacement could be complicated/impractical for IFs nested in both branches (shown with alternatives of indentation, indented on both sides), making full symmetrical tree:

{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition1
 |<!--then-->branch1t{{
  #ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition2
   |<!--then-->branch1t2t{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition4|<!--then-->branch1t2t4t|<!--else-->branch1t2t4e}}
   |<!--else-->branch1t2e{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition5|<!--then-->branch1t2e5t|<!--else-->branch1t2e5e}}
  }}
 |<!--else-->branch1e{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition3
   |<!--then-->branch1e3t{{#ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition6|branch1e3t6t|branch1e3t6e}}
   |<!--else-->branch1e3e{{
    #ifeq:{{{1}}}|condition7
     |branch1e3e7t
     |branch1e3e7t
    }}
  }}
}}

#time

Dies Parserfunktion nimmt ein Datum und/oder eine Zeit (im Gregorianischen Kalender) und formatiert es gemäß der gegebenen Syntax. Eine Datum/Zeit-Einheit kann bestimmt werden, der Standardwert ist der Wert des magischen Worts {{CURRENTTIMESTAMP}} – d.h. die Zeit, als die Seite zuletzt in HTML übersetzt wurde.

{{#time: format string }}
{{#time: format string | date/time object }}
{{#time: format string | date/time object | language code }}
{{#time: format string | date/time object | language code | local }}

Die Liste der gültigen Formate ist der Tabelle rechts zu entnehmen. Jedes Zeichen im formatierten String, das nicht erkannt wird, wird unverändert ausgegeben; dies betrifft auch Leerzeichen (das System braucht diese nicht für das Interpretieren des Codes). Es gibt zwei Wege, Zeichen innerhalb des Formatierungs-Strings zu umgehen:

  1. Ein linksseitiger Schrägstrich (Backslash) wird als einzelnes buchstäbliches Zeichen interpretiert
  2. Zeichen innerhalb doppelten Anführungszeichen werden als buchstäbliche Zeichen interpretiert und die Anführungszeichen entfernt.

Zusätzlich wird der Digraph xx als einzelnes buchstäbliches "x" interpretiert.

{{#time: Y-m-d }}2020-08-15
{{#time: [[Y]] m d }}2020 08 15
{{#time: [[Y (year)]] }}2020 (20UTCamSat, 15 Aug 2020 10:47:32 +0000)
{{#time: [[Y "(year)"]] }}2020 (year)
{{#time: i's" }}47'32"

Die Datum/Zeit-Einheit kann in jedem von der PHP-Funktion strtotime() akzeptierten Format sein. Sowohl absolute (z.B. 20 December 2000) als auch relative (z.b. +20 hours) Zeiten werden akzeptiert.

{{#time: r|now}}Sat, 15 Aug 2020 10:47:32 +0000
{{#time: r|+2 hours}}Sat, 15 Aug 2020 12:47:32 +0000
{{#time: r|now + 2 hours}}Sat, 15 Aug 2020 12:47:32 +0000
{{#time: r|20 December 2000}}Wed, 20 Dec 2000 00:00:00 +0000
{{#time: r|December 20, 2000}}Wed, 20 Dec 2000 00:00:00 +0000
{{#time: r|2000-12-20}}Wed, 20 Dec 2000 00:00:00 +0000
{{#time: r|2000 December 20}}Error: Invalid time.

Der Sprachcode in ISO 639-3 (?) erlaubt die Anzeige der Zeichenkette in der gewählten Sprache

{{#time:d F Y|1988-02-28|nl}}28 februari 1988
{{#time:l|now|uk}}субота
{{#time:d xg Y|20 June 2010|pl}}20 czerwca 2010

The local parameter specifies if the date/time object refers to the local timezone or to UTC.

This is a boolean parameters: its value is determined by casting the value of the argument (see the official PHP documentation for details on how string are cast to boolean values).

Please note that, if the variable $wgLocaltimezone is set to UTC, there is no difference in the output when local is set to true or false.

See the following examples for details:

{{#time: Y F d H:i:s|now|it|0}}2020 agosto 15 10:47:32
{{#time: Y F d H:i:s|now|it|1}}2020 agosto 15 10:47:32
{{#time: Y F d H:i:s|+2 hours||0}}2020 August 15 12:47:32
{{#time: Y F d H:i:s|+2 hours||1}}2020 August 15 12:47:32
{{#time:c|2019-05-16T17:05:43+02:00|it}}2019-05-16T15:05:43+00:00
{{#time:c|2019-05-16T17:05:43+02:00|it|0}}2019-05-16T15:05:43+00:00
{{#time:c|2019-05-16T17:05:43+02:00|it|true}}2019-05-16T15:05:43+00:00

Unix Zeitstempel können in Datumsrechnungen verwendet werden, indem ein @ Symbol vorangestellt wird.

{{#time: U | now }}1597488452
{{#time: r | @1597488452 }}Sat, 15 Aug 2020 10:47:32 +0000
Warnung Warnung: Without the @ prefix before numeric timestamp values, the result is an error most of the time, or is an unexpected value:
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 00:16:39 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:39 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 00:16:39 }}999
{{#time: r | @999 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:39 +0000 (korrekt)
{{#time: r | 999 }}Error: Invalid time. (nicht unterstütztes Datumsformat)
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 00:16:40 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:40 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 00:16:40 }}1000
{{#time: r | @1000 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 00:16:40 +0000 (korrekt)
{{#time: r | 1000 }}Fri, 15 Aug 1000 00:00:00 +0000 (interpreted as a year with current month and day of the month)
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 02:46:39 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:39 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 02:46:39 }}9999
{{#time: r | @9999 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:39 +0000 (korrekt)
{{#time: r | 9999 }}Sun, 15 Aug 9999 00:00:00 +0000 (interpreted as a year with current month and day of the month)
{{#time: r | 1970-01-01 02:46:40 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:40 +0000
{{#time: U | 1970-01-01 02:46:40 }}10000
{{#time: r | @10000 }}Thu, 01 Jan 1970 02:46:40 +0000 (korrekt)
{{#time: r | 10000 }}Error: Invalid time. (nicht unterstütztes Jahresformat)
Warnung Warnung: Die gültige Zeitspanne umfasst 1. Januar 0111 → 31. Dezember 9999. Für die Jahre 100 bis 110 ist die Ausgabe inkonsitent und Schaltjahre werden wie die Jahre 100–110: r, D, l und U interpretieren diese Jahre als 2000-2010.
{{#time: d F Y | 29 Feb 0100 }}01 März 0100
(korrekt, kein Schaltjahr), aber
{{#time: r | 29 Feb 0100 }}Mon, 01 Mar 0100 00:00:00 +0000 (falsch, auch wenn 100 als 2000 interpretiert wird, da dies ein Schaltjahr ist)
{{#time: d F Y | 15 April 10000 }}Error: Invalid time.
{{#time: r | 10000-4-15 }}Sat, 15 Apr 2000 10:00:00 +0000

Jahreszahlen 0-99 werden als 2000-2069 und 1970-1999 interpretiert, außer sie werden im 4-Ziffernformat mit führender Null geschrieben:

{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 6 }}01 Januar 2006
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 06 }}01 Januar 2006
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 006 }}01 Januar 2006
{{#time: d F Y | 1 Jan 0006 }}01 Januar 0006 (4-digit format)
Der Wochentag wird ausgegeben für die Jahre 100-110 und ab 1753, für die Jahre 111-1752 zeigt die r-Ausgabe "Unbekannt" und die l-Ausgabe "<>". Als Folge davon wird die r-Ausgabe für diese Jahre nicht als Eingabe akzeptiert.

Es können vollständige oder Teile von absoluten Datumsangaben angegeben werden, die Funktion "füllt" die fehlenden Datumsteile mit den aktuellen Werten:

{{#time: Y | January 1 }}2020
Warnung Warnung: Diese Ausfüllfunktion ist inkonsistent, manche Teile werden mit aktuellen Werten gefüllt, andere nicht:
{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | June }}2020 06 15 00:00:00 Zeigt den Tagesbeginn, aber den aktuellen Tag des Monats und das aktuelle Jahr.
{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 2003 }}2003 08 15 00:00:00 Zeigt den Tagesbeginn, aber den aktuellen Tag des Jahres.

There's exception case of the filled day:

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | June 2003 }}2003 06 01 00:00:00 Gives the start of the day and the start of the month.

Eine 4-stellige Zahl wird immer als Jahr interpretiert, nie als Stunden und Minuten:[1]

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 1959 }}1959 08 15 00:00:00

Eine sechsstellige Zahl wird wenn möglich als Stunden, Minuten und Sekunden interpretiert, aber andernfalls als Fehler (nicht z.B. als Jahr und Monat):

{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 195909 }}2020 08 15 19:59:09 Die Eingabe wird als Zeit behandelt statt Jahr- & Monats-Code.
{{#time: Y m d H:i:s | 196009 }}Error: Invalid time. Obwohl 19:60:09 keine gültige Zeitangabe ist, wird 196009 nicht als September 1960 interpretiert.

Die Funktion führt eine gewisse Menge an Datums-Rechnungen durch:

{{#time: d F Y | January 0 2008 }}31 Dezember 2007
{{#time: d F | January 32 }}Error: Invalid time.
{{#time: d F | February 29 2008 }}29 Februar
{{#time: d F | February 29 2007 }}01 März
{{#time:Y-F|now -1 months}}2020-Juli

Die Gesamtlänge der Formatierungszeichenkette der Funktion #time ist auf 6000 Zeichen beschränkt.[2]

Zeitzonenprobleme

There is a bug in this #time parser function (more specifically in PHP DateTime) that does not allow the passing-in of non-integers as relative time zone offsets. This issue does not apply when using an on-the-hour time zone, such as EDT. For example:

  • {{#time:g:i A | -4 hours }} → 6:47 AM

However, India is on a +5.5 hours time offset from UTC, and thus using its time zone will not normally allow the correct calculation of a relative time zone offset. Here's what happens:

  • {{#time:g:i A | +5.5 hours }} → 10:47 AM

To workaround this issue, simply convert the time into minutes or seconds, like this:

  • {{#time:g:i A | +330 minutes }} → 4:17 PM
  • {{#time:g:i A | +19800 seconds }} → 4:17 PM

(Tim Starling, the developer of this function, provided the exact syntax for this solution.)

#timel

This function is identical to {{#time: ... }}, when the local parameter is set to true, so it always uses the local time of the wiki (as set in $wgLocaltimezone ).

Syntax of the function is:

{{#timel: format string }}
{{#timel: format string | date/time object }}
{{#timel: format string | date/time object | language code }}
Please note that, if the variable $wgLocaltimezone is set to UTC, there is no difference in the output when local is set to true or false
Example of the use of #time and #timel parser functions from a server where the timezone is not UTC

For instance, see the following examples:

{{#time:c|now|it}}2020-08-15T10:47:32+00:00
{{#time:c|now|it|0}}2020-08-15T10:47:32+00:00
{{#time:c|now|it|1}}2020-08-15T10:47:32+00:00
{{#timel:c|now|it}}2020-08-15T10:47:32+00:00
Warnung Warnung: Be aware that U for both time and timel will return the same number of seconds since 1970-01-01 00:00:00 UTC on Wikipedias with different timezones than UTC (formerly known as GMT)
U Unix time. Seconds since January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT.
Z Timezone offset in seconds.
{{#time: U}}1597488452
{{#timel: U}}1597488452
{{#time: Z}}0
{{#timel: Z}}0

#titleparts

This function separates a page title into segments based on slashes, then returns some of those segments as output.

{{#titleparts: pagename | number of segments to return | first segment to return }}

If the number of segments to return parameter is not specified, it defaults to "0", which returns all the segments from the first segment to return (included). If the first segment to return parameter is not specified or is "0", it defaults to "1":

{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok }}Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | 1 }}Talk:Foo See also {{ROOTPAGENAME }}.
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | 2 }}Talk:Foo/bar
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | 2 | 2 }}bar/baz
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | | 2 }}bar/baz/quok
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | | 5 }}

Negative values are accepted for both values. Negative values for the number of segments to return parameter effectively 'strips' segments from the end of the string. Negative values for the first segment to return translates to "start with this segment counting from the right":

{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -1 }}Talk:Foo/bar/baz Strips one segment from the end of the string. See also {{BASEPAGENAME}}.
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -4 }} Strips all 4 segments from the end of the string
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -5 }} Strips 5 segments from the end of the string (more than exist)
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | | -1 }} quok Returns last segment. See also {{SUBPAGENAME}}.
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -1 | 2 }} bar/baz Strips one segment from the end of the string, then returns the second segment and beyond
{{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bar/baz/quok | -1 | -2 }} baz Start copying at the second last element; strip one segment from the end of the string

Before processing, the pagename parameter is HTML-decoded: if it contains some standard HTML character entities, they will be converted to plain characters (internally encoded with UTF-8, i.e. the same encoding as in the MediaWiki source page using this parser function).

For example, any occurrence of &quot;, &#34;, or &#x22; in pagename will be replaced by ".
No other conversion from HTML to plain text is performed, so HTML tags are left intact at this initial step even if they are invalid in page titles.
Some magic keywords or parser functions of MediaWiki (such as {{PAGENAME }} and similar) are known to return strings that are needlessly HTML-encoded, even if their own input parameter was not HTML-encoded:

The titleparts parser function can then be used as a workaround, to convert these returned strings so that they can be processed correctly by some other parser functions also taking a page name in parameter (such as {{PAGESINCAT: }} but which are still not working properly with HTML-encoded input strings.

For example, if the current page is Category:Côte-d'Or, then:

  • {{#ifeq: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d'Or | 1 | 0 }}, and {{#ifeq: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d&apos;Or | 1 | 0 }} are both returning 1; (the #ifeq parser function does perform the HTML-decoding of its input parameters).
  • {{#switch: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d'Or = 1 | #default = 0 }}, and {{#switch: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | Category:Côte-d&apos;Or = 1 | #default = 0 }} are both returning 1; (the #switch parser function does perform the HTML-decoding of its input parameters).
  • {{#ifexist: {{FULLPAGENAME}} | 1 | 0 }}, {{#ifexist: Category:Côte-d'Or | 1 | 0 }}, or even {{#ifexist: Category:Côte-d&apos;Or | 1 | 0 }} will all return 1 if that category page exists (the #ifexist parser function does perform the HTML-decoding of its input parameters);
  • {{PAGESINCAT: Côte-d'Or }} will return a non-zero number, if that category contains pages or subcategories, but:
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{CURRENTPAGENAME}} }}, may still unconditionally return 0, just like:
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d'Or}} }}
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d&apos;Or}} }}

The reason of this unexpected behavior is that, with the current versions of MediaWiki, there are two caveats:

  • {{FULLPAGENAME}}, or even {{FULLPAGENAME|Côte-d'Or}} may return the actually HTML-encoded string Category:Côte-d&apos;Or and not the expected Category:Côte-d'Or, and that:
  • {{PAGESINCAT: Côte-d&apos;Or }} unconditionally returns 0 (the PAGESINCAT magic keyword does not perform any HTML-decoding of its input parameter).

The simple workaround using titleparts (which will continue to work if the two caveats are fixed in a later version of MediaWiki) is:

  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{#titleparts: {{CURRENTPAGENAME}} }} }}
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{#titleparts: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d'Or}} }} }}
  • {{PAGESINCAT: {{#titleparts: {{PAGENAME|Category:Côte-d&apos;Or}} }} }}, that all return the actual number of pages in the same category.

Then the decoded pagename is canonicalized into a standard page title supported by MediaWiki, as much as possible:

  1. All underscores are automatically replaced with spaces:
    {{#titleparts: Talk:Foo/bah_boo|1|2}}bah boo Not bah_boo, despite the underscore in the original.
  2. The string is split a maximum of 25 times; further slashes are ignored and the 25th element will contain the rest of the string. The string is also limited to 255 characters, as it is treated as a page title:
    {{#titleparts: a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j/k/l/m/n/o/p/q/r/s/t/u/v/w/x/y/z/aa/bb/cc/dd/ee | 1 | 25 }}y/z/aa/bb/cc/dd/ee
    If for whatever reason you needed to push this function to its limit, although very unlikely, it is possible to bypass the 25 split limit by nesting function calls:
    {{#titleparts: {{#titleparts: a/b/c/d/e/f/g/h/i/j/k/l/m/n/o/p/q/r/s/t/u/v/w/x/y/z/aa/bb/cc/dd/ee| 1 | 25 }} | 1 | 2}}z
  3. Finally the first substring is capitalized according to the capitalization settings of the local wiki (if that substring also starts by a local namespace name, that namespace name is also normalized).
    {{#titleparts: talk:a/b/c }}Talk:A/b/c
Warnung Warnung: You can use #titleparts as a small "string parser and converter", but consider that it returns the first substring capitalized:
{{#titleparts: one/two/three/four|1|1 }}One
{{#titleparts: one/two/three/four|1|2 }}two

If lower case is needed, use lc: function to control output:

{{lc: {{#titleparts: one/two/three/four|1|1 }} }}one

You can prepend a 'dummy' slash at the beginning of the string to get the correct first substring capitalization (uppercase or lowercase). Use 2 instead of 1 for first segment to return:

{{#titleparts: /one/two/three/four|1|2 }}one
{{#titleparts: /One/two/three/four|1|2 }}One
Warnung Warnung: Certain characters that are illegal in a page title will cause #titleparts to not parse the string:
{{#titleparts: {one/two} | 1 | 1 }}{one/two}. Führt nicht zum erwarteten: {one
{{#titleparts: [[page]]/123 | 1 | 2 }}page/123. Does not work because brackets are illegal in page titles and this parser function does not process links embedded in its input pagename parameter, even when they use the MediaWiki syntax, or any other HTML or MediaWiki tags.
{{#titleparts: red/#00FF00/blue | 1 | 3 }} → "". Does not work because "#" is also illegal in page titles.
Warnung Warnung: If any part of the title is just "." or "..", #titleparts will not parse the string:
{{#titleparts: one/./three | 1 | 1 }}one/./three. The whole string is returned. It does not produce the expected: one
Warnung Warnung: This function does not degrade gracefully if the input exceeds 255 bytes in UTF-8. If the input string is 256 bytes or more, the whole string is returned.

StringFunctions

All of these functions (len, pos, rpos, sub, replace, explode) are integrated from the StringFunctions extension, but are only available if an administrator sets $wgPFEnableStringFunctions = true; in LocalSettings.php.

All of these functions operate in O(n) time complexity, making them safe against DoS attacks.

  1. Some parameters of these functions are limited through global settings to prevent abuse. See section Limits hereafter.
  2. For functions that are case sensitive, you may use the magic word {{lc:string}} as a workaround in some cases.
  3. To determine whether a MediaWiki server enables these functions, check the list of supported Extended parser functions in Special:Version.
  4. String length is limited by $wgPFStringLengthLimit variable, default to 1000.

#len

The #len parser function was merged from the StringFunctions extension as of version 1.2.0.

The #len function returns the length of the given string. The syntax is:

{{#len:string}}

The return value is always a number of characters in the source string (after expansions of template invocations, but before conversion to HTML). If no string is specified, the return value is zero.

  • This function is safe with UTF-8 multibyte characters. Example:
    • {{#len:Žmržlina}}8
  • Leading and trailing spaces or newlines are not counted, but intermediate spaces and newlines are taken into account. Examples:
    • {{#len:Icecream }}8
    • {{#len: a   b }}5 - 3 spaces between 2 characters
  • Characters given by reference are not converted, but counted according to their source form.
    • {{#len:&nbsp;}}6 - named characters references
    • {{#len:&#32;}}5 - numeric characters references, not ignored despite it designates a space here.
  • Tags such as <nowiki> and other tag extensions will always have a length of zero, since their content is hidden from the parser. Example:
    • {{#len:<nowiki>This is a </nowiki>test}}4

#pos

The #pos parser function was merged from the StringFunctions extension as of version 1.2.0.

The #pos function returns the position of a given search term within the string. The syntax is:

{{#pos:string|search term|offset}}

The offset parameter, if specified, tells a starting position where this function should begin searching.

If the search term is found, the return value is a zero-based integer of the first position within the string.

If the search term is not found, the function returns an empty string.

  • This function is case sensitive.
  • The maximum allowed length of the search term is limited through the $wgStringFunctionsLimitSearch global setting.
  • This function is safe with UTF-8 multibyte characters. Example: {{#pos:Žmržlina|žlina}} returns 3.
  • As with #len, <nowiki> and other tag extensions are treated as having a length of 1 for the purposes of character position. Example: {{#pos:<nowiki>This is a </nowiki>test|test}} returns 1.

#rpos

The #rpos parser function was merged from the StringFunctions extension as of version 1.2.0.

The #rpos function returns the last position of a given search term within the string. The syntax is:

 {{#rpos:string|search term}}

If the search term is found, the return value is a zero-based integer of its last position within the string.

If the search term is not found, the function returns -1.

When using this to search for the last delimiter, add +1 to the result to retrieve position after the last delimiter. This also works when the delimiter is not found, because "-1 + 1" is zero, which is the beginning of the given value.
  • This function is case sensitive.
  • The maximum allowed length of the search term is limited through the $wgStringFunctionsLimitSearch global setting.
  • This function is safe with UTF-8 multibyte characters. Example: {{#rpos:Žmržlina|lina}} returns 4.
  • As with #len, <nowiki> and other tag extensions are treated as having a length of 1 for the purposes of character position. Example: {{#rpos:<nowiki>This is a </nowiki>test|test}} returns 1.

#sub

The #sub parser function was merged from the StringFunctions extension as of version 1.2.0.

The #sub function returns a substring from the given string. The syntax is:

{{#sub:string|start|length}}

The start parameter, if positive (or zero), specifies a zero-based index of the first character to be returned.

Example: {{#sub:Icecream|3}} returns cream.

{{#sub:Icecream|0|3}} returns Ice.

If the start parameter is negative, it specifies how many characters from the end should be returned.

Example: {{#sub:Icecream|-3}} returns eam.

The length parameter, if present and positive, specifies the maximum length of the returned string.

Example: {{#sub:Icecream|3|3}} returns cre.

If the length parameter is negative, it specifies how many characters will be omitted from the end of the string.

Example: {{#sub:Icecream|3|-3}} returns cr.

If the start parameter is negative, it specifies how many characters from the end should be returned. The length parameter, if present and positive, specifies the maximum length of the returned string from the starting point.

Example: {{#sub:Icecream|-3|2}} returns ea.

  • If the length parameter is zero, it is not used for truncation at all.
    • Example: {{#sub:Icecream|3|0}} returns cream. {{#sub:Icecream|0|3}} returns Ice.
  • If start denotes a position beyond the truncation from the end by negative length parameter, an empty string will be returned.
    • Example: {{#sub:Icecream|3|-6}} returns an empty string.
  • This function is safe with UTF-8 multibyte characters. Example: {{#sub:Žmržlina|3}} returns žlina.
  • As with #len, <nowiki> and other tag extensions are treated as having a length of 1 for the purposes of character position. Example: {{#sub:<nowiki>This is a </nowiki>test|1}} returns test.

#replace

The #replace parser function was merged from the StringFunctions extension as of version 1.2.0.

The #replace function returns the given string with all occurrences of a search term replaced with a replacement term.

{{#replace:string|search term|replacement term}}

If the search term is unspecified or empty, a single space will be searched for.

If the replacement term is unspecified or empty, all occurrences of the search term will be removed from the string.

  • This function is case-sensitive.
  • The maximum allowed length of the search term is limited through the $wgStringFunctionsLimitSearch global setting.
  • The maximum allowed length of the replacement term is limited through the $wgStringFunctionsLimitReplace global setting.
  • Even if the replacement term is a space, an empty string is used. This is a side-effect of the MediaWiki parser. To use a space as the replacement term, put it in nowiki tags.
    • Example: {{#replace:My_little_home_page|_|<nowiki> </nowiki>}} returns My little home page.
    • If this doesn't work, try {{#replace:My_little_home_page|_|<nowiki/> <nowiki/>}} with two self-closing tags.
    • Note that this is the only acceptable use of nowiki in the replacement term, as otherwise nowiki could be used to bypass $wgStringFunctionsLimitReplace, injecting an arbitrarily large number of characters into the output. For this reason, all occurrences of <nowiki> or any other tag extension within the replacement term are replaced with spaces.
  • This function is safe with UTF-8 multibyte characters. Example: {{#replace:Žmržlina|ž|z}} returns Žmrzlina.
  • If multiple items in a single text string need to be replaced, one could also consider Extension:ReplaceSet . It adds a parser function for a sequence of replacements.
Case-insensitive replace

Currently the syntax doesn't provide a switch to toggle case-sensitivity setting. But you may make use of magic words of formatting as a workaround. (e.g. {{lc:your_string_here}}) For example, if you want to remove the word "Category:" from the string regardless of its case, you may type:

{{#replace:{{lc:{{{1}}}}}|category:|}}

But the disadvantage is that the output will become all lower-case. If you want to keep the casing after replacement, you have to use multiple nesting levels (i.e. multiple replace calls) to achieve the same thing.

#explode

The #explode parser function was merged from the StringFunctions extension as of version 1.2.0.

The #explode function splits the given string into pieces and then returns one of the pieces. The syntax is:

{{#explode:string|delimiter|position|limit}}

The delimiter parameter specifies a string to be used to divide the string into pieces. This delimiter string is then not part of any piece, and when two delimiter strings are next to each other, they create an empty piece between them. If this parameter is not specified, a single space is used. The limit parameter is available in ParserFunctions only, not the standalone StringFunctions version, and allows you to limit the number of parts returned, with all remaining text included in the final part.

The position parameter specifies which piece is to be returned. Pieces are counted from 0. If this parameter is not specified, the first piece is used (piece with number 0). When a negative value is used as position, the pieces are counted from the end. In this case, piece number -1 means the last piece. Examples:

  • {{#explode:And if you tolerate this| |2}} returns you
  • {{#explode:String/Functions/Code|/|-1}} returns Code
  • {{#explode:Split%By%Percentage%Signs|%|2}} returns Percentage
  • {{#explode:And if you tolerate this| |2|3}} returns you tolerate this

The return value is the position-th piece. If there are fewer pieces than the position specifies, an empty string is returned.

  • This function is case sensitive.
  • The maximum allowed length of the delimiter is limited through $wgStringFunctionsLimitSearch global setting.
  • This function is safe with UTF-8 multibyte characters. Example: {{#explode:Žmržlina|ž|1}} returns lina.

#urldecode

#urldecode converts the escape characters from an 'URL encoded' string string back to readable text. The syntax is:

{{#urldecode:value}}

Notes:

  • This function works by directly exposing PHP's urldecode() function.
  • A character-code-reference can be found at www.w3schools.com.
  • The opposite, urlencode, has been integrated into MediaWiki as of version 1.18; for examples, see Help:Magic Words .
  • urldecode was merged from Stringfunctions in 2010, by commit 1b75afd18d3695bdb6ffbfccd0e4aec064785363

Limits

This module defines three global settings:

These are used to limit some parameters of some functions to ensure the functions operate in O(n) time complexity, and are therefore safe against DoS attacks.

$wgStringFunctionsLimitSearch

This setting is used by #pos, #rpos, #replace, and #explode. All these functions search for a substring in a larger string while they operate, which can run in O(n*m) and therefore make the software more vulnerable to DoS attacks. By setting this value to a specific small number, the time complexity is decreased to O(n).

This setting limits the maximum allowed length of the string being searched for.

The default value is 30 multibyte characters.

$wgStringFunctionsLimitReplace

This setting is used by #replace. This function replaces all occurrences of one string for another, which can be used to quickly generate very large amounts of data, and therefore makes the software more vulnerable to DoS attacks. This setting limits the maximum allowed length of the replacing string.

The default value is 30 multibyte characters.

Allgemeines

Substitution

Parser functions can be substituted by prefixing the hash character with subst::

{{subst:#ifexist: Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/de | [[Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/de]] | Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/de }} → the code [[Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/de]] will be inserted in the wikitext since the page Help:Extension:ParserFunctions/de exists.
Warnung Warnung: The results of substituted parser functions are undefined if the expressions contain unsubstituted volatile code such as variables or other parser functions. For consistent results, all the volatile code in the expression to be evaluated must be substituted. See Help:Substitution.

Substitution does not work within <ref></ref> , you can use {{subst:#tag:ref|}} for this purpose.

Weiterleitungen

Especially {{#time:…|now-…}} could be handy in redirects to pages including dates, but this does not work.

Escaping pipe characters in tables

Parser functions will mangle wikitable syntax and pipe characters (|), treating all the raw pipe characters as parameter dividers. To avoid this, most wikis used a template Template:! with its contents only a raw pipe character (|), since MW 1.24 a {{!}} magic word replaced this kludge. This 'hides' the pipe from the MediaWiki parser, ensuring that it is not considered until after all the templates and variables on a page have been expanded. It will then be interpreted as a table row or column separator. Alternatively, raw HTML table syntax can be used, although this is less intuitive and more error-prone.

You can also escape the pipe character for display as a plain, uninterpreted character using an HTML entity: &#124; .

Beschreibung Man tippt Man erhält
Escaping pipe character as table row/column separator
{{!}}
|
Escaping pipe character as a plain character
&#124;
|

Stripping whitespace

Whitespace, including newlines, tabs, and spaces, is stripped from the beginning and end of all the parameters of these parser functions. If this is not desirable, comparison of strings can be done after putting them in quotation marks.

{{#ifeq: foo           |           foo | equal | not equal }}equal
{{#ifeq: "foo          " | "          foo" | equal | not equal }}not equal

To prevent the trimming of then and else parts, see m:Template:If. Some people achieve this by using <nowiki > </nowiki> instead of spaces.

foo{{#if:|| bar }}foofoobarfoo
foo{{#if:||<nowiki /> bar <nowiki />}}foofoo bar foo

However, this method can be used to render a single whitespace character only, since the parser squeezes multiple whitespace characters in a row into one.

<span style="white-space: pre;">foo{{#if:||<nowiki></nowiki>      bar      <nowiki></nowiki>}}foo</span>
foo bar foo

In this example, the white-space: pre style is used to force the whitespace to be preserved by the browser, but even with it the spaces are not shown. This happens because the spaces are stripped by the software, before being sent to the browser.

It is possible to workaround this behavior replacing whitespaces with &#32; (breakable space) or &nbsp; (non-breakable space), since they are not modified by the software:

<span style="white-space: pre;">foo{{#if:||&#32;&#32;&#32;bar&#32;&#32;&#32;}}foo</span>foo bar foo
foo{{#if:||&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;bar&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;}}foofoo   bar   foo

Siehe auch

Anmerkungen

  1. Vor r86805 im Jahr 2011 war dies nicht der Fall.
  2. ExtParserFunctions.php in phabricator.wikimedia.org