Help:الگوها

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Templates and the translation is 16% complete.

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PD توجه: هنگامی که شما این برگه را ویرایش کنید، در واقع شما توافق کرده‌اید که براساس کریتیو کامانز ۰ با ما همکاری می‌کنید. برای داده‌های بیشتر

برگهٔ راهنما برای دامنه‌های عمومی را نگاه کنید.


PD

If you have standard texts you want to include on several pages, the MediaWiki template feature comes into play. برخلاف افزونه ها و فایل های رسانه ای، مخزن مرکزی برای الگوها وجود ندارد. الگوه می توانند به تازگی نوشته شوند یا برای صرفه جویی کارهایی که قیلاً کردید را تکثیر کنید،از ویکی دیگر مانند ویکی پدیا برون ریزی کنید و سپس به ویکی مقصد درون ریزی کنید.

ایجاد

Templates are standard wiki pages whose content is designed to be transcluded (embedded) inside other pages. Templates follow a convention that the name is prefixed with "Template:", assigning it to that namespace; besides this, you can create them like any other wiki page.

ساده ترین کاربرد الگوها به صورت زیر است، اگر شما یک صفحه با نام "الگو:خوش آمدید" با محتوای زیر درست کرده باشید:

 سلام! به ویکی خوش آمدید.

شمااولین قالب خود را ایجاد کرده اید! سپس اگر شما کد:

 {{خوش آمدید}}

در هر صفحه ی دیگر قرار دهید، وقتی صفحه مشاهده شود عیارت "سلام! به ویکی خوش آمدید" به جای {{خوش آمدید}} ظاهر می شود. محتوای الگو "تراگنجانیده" در صفحه ی دیگر شده است مثل اینکه در صفحه ادغام و یکپارچه شده است.

شما می توانید {{خوش آمدید}} در هر نقطه از هر صفحه قرار دهید وقتی که شما مایل به خوش آمد گویی به شخص دیگری هستید. فرض کنید آنرا در 100 صفحه استفاده کردید، اگر شما محتوای الگو را به:

سلام! به این ویکی فوق العاده خوش آمدید.

تغییر دهید وهر 100 صفحه که الگو استفاده شده است را دوباره مشاهده کنید، شما عبارت جدید را در عوض نسخه اصلی خواهید دید. در این روش، شما محتوای 100 صفحه را بدون ویرای آنها تغییر داده اید، زیرا الگو در این صفجه تراگنجانیده شده است.

این مکانیزم اصلی است. چندین ویژگی اضافی از تراگنجانیدن وجود دارد که این مکانیزم را غنی می کند و بعث می شود الگوها خیلی مفید باشند.

کاربرد

الگوها می توانند در صفحه های دیگر به روشهای زیر استفاده شوند:

  • {{نام}} — همانطور که در بالا شرح داده شده است، این لینک به صورت دینامیک با محتوای الگو:نام در زمانی که صفحه با لینک الگو بارگذاری شده است، عوض خواهد شد.
  • {{subst:نام}}
  • {{safesubst:Name}} — this was introduced to allow for substitution that doesn't break transclusion, see w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{msgnw:Name}} includes the template in a form that displays it as raw wiki syntax (the way <nowiki> does) when the page containing it is fetched.

In fact, an ordinary wiki page can also be used as a template, simply by specifying the namespace it resides in, so:

  • {{Template:نام صفحه}} includes [[Template:نام صفحه]]
  • {{Talk:Pagename}} includes [[Talk:Pagename]]
  • {{:Pagename}} includes [[Pagename]]
    • {{subst::Pagename}} replaces itself with the contents of [[Pagename]]

If no such namespace exists, the full title is assumed to be a template:

  • {{Foo:Bar}} includes [[Template:Foo:Bar]]

Parameters

To enrich the mechanism of transclusion, MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to a template when it is transcluded. Parameters allow the template to produce different contents or have different behaviors.

Suppose you wish to insert a little thank you note in the talk page of other users, such as:

A little thank you... for all your effort. hugs, Me

The thank you note will have a reason (in this case, "all your effort") and a signature ("Me"). Your objective is that any user be able to thank any other user, for any reason whatsoever.

So that the note will look similar everywhere it is used, you can define a template called Template:Thankyou, for example. Although the note should look similar whenever a user thanks another user, its specific contents (i.e. the reason and the signature) will be different. For that reason, you should pass them as parameters. If we ignore the remaining elements to format the box and place the image, the core content of the template will be this:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}

Notice the use of {{{1}}} and {{{2}}}. This is the way to identify, within templates, the parameters that will be passed in when the template is used. Note that, within the template, each parameter is surrounded by three braces: {{{ }}}. This is different from normal template name usage.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a "pipe" character (|). MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to the template in three ways: Anonymously, Numbered, and Named.

Anonymous parameters

To pass in anonymous parameters, list the values of those parameters sequentially:

{{Thankyou|all your effort|Me}}

In this case, the {{Thankyou}} template receives parameters {{{1}}}=all your effort and {{{2}}}=Me, producing:

A little thank you... for all your effort. hugs, Me

The order in which anonymous parameters are passed in is crucial to its behavior. Reversing the order of the parameters, like so:

{{Thankyou|Me|all your effort}}

would produce this result:

A little thank you... for Me. hugs, all your effort

Note: Identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc) works only with anonymous parameters. Any parameters identified by name, as shown below, will not be accessible to the template using ordinal numbers.

Note: If an equal sign appears inside the argument to an anonymous template parameter, that parameter may be misinterpreted as a named parameter (which is explained below in this document) treating the text before the equal sign as the parameter name and the text after it as the argument value. This is a common problem when you need to include an external link, or an HTML element with attributes (see Task 16235). The workaround is to use named parameters instead, or even numbered parameters as explained in the following section.

پارامترهای شماره‌دار

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Me|1=your friendship}}

This time, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{1}}}=your friendship and {{{2}}}=Me, though they have been supplied in inverse order, and produces: A little thank you... for your friendship. hugs, Me

پارامترهای دارای نام

The third way of passing parameters is by name instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason}}}.
hugs, {{{signature}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

A little thank you... for being who you are. hugs, Me Named parameters are case-sensitive, so:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|Reason=being who you are|reason=being case-sensitive}}

produces: A little thank you... for being case-sensitive. hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

مقادیر پیش‌فرض

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide their arguments, in this way:

{{Thankyou}}

in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:

A little thank you... for {{{1}}}. hugs, {{{2}}}

Since no arguments were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no argument is provided for parameter {{{reason}}}, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any argument results in the following: A little thank you... for everything. hugs, Me

Order of evaluation

With a few exceptions, template parameters are fully evaluated before they are passed to the template. So if one of your parameters is a call to another template, what is actually passed is the expanded parameter.

{{Thankyou|reason=visiting ({{Welcome}})|signature=Me}}

becomes

{{Thankyou|reason=visiting (Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.)|signature=Me}}

before it becomes:

A little thank you... for visiting (Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.). hugs, Me

In a few circumstances, this order of evaluation makes a difference from the alternative. (The alternative being to check the results of the template call to see if there are additional templates to be expanded.)

First, the name of the template can be expanded at the same time and in the same way as the parameters.

Thus

{{Thankyou in {{preferred language}}|signature=Me}}

might expand to

{{Thankyou in French|signature=Me}}

So that a template called Thankyou in French could display the thank you in the preferred language (however that was determined.)

Secondly, the template being called can't construct a template from pieces to be called later. A template that took the form {{start of call}}{{end of call}} would not work if start of call was {{Thankyou| and end of call was signature=Me}}.

Thirdly, the parameter being passed is expanded only once, rather than every place the parameter is used in the template. This is more efficient on the mediawiki server.

Finally, the template being called can't stop the parameter from being expanded altogether. Even if a template only uses a parameter in some circumstances, it will always have been expanded before the call was made.

Exceptions to the order of evaluation

In a few circumstance template parameters are not evaluated before being passed to the template.

Parameters to a subst: expansion are not evaluated, but are passed literally.

Some magic words are not evaluated as parameters. Their evaluation is delayed because they have side-effects. For example, {{foo| {{{DISPLAYTITLE:main page}}} }} would not

  1. evaluate DISPLAYTITLE
  2. change the display title of the page and
  3. call foo with parameter 1 being blank

instead

  1. DISPLAYTITLE would not be evaluated (yet)
  2. foo would be called with parameter 1 being {{{DISPLAYTITLE:main page}}}
  3. only if {{{1}}} is evaluated in foo, would the display title of the page be changed.

Which magic words are evaluated late like this has not been fully documented. Known ones include:

Recursion in templates

Including a template in itself won't throw MediaWiki into infinite recursion. MediaWiki will stop the recursion with the template's name in bold. For example, if the content of "Template:Aaaa" is "{{Aaaa}}", it'll show as "Template:Aaaa".

Control template inclusion

By default, a template's content is displayed in its entirety, both when viewed directly and when included in another page. However, you can control which parts of a template will be seen and included by the use of the <noinclude>, <includeonly> and <onlyinclude> tags.

Anything between <noinclude> and </noinclude> will be seen only when the template's page is being viewed directly, but not when it is included in another page. This is useful when you want to include text or code in a template that you do not want to propagate to any pages which include it, such as:

  • Category links when categorizing the template itself
  • interlanguage links to similar templates in other languages
  • Explanatory text about how to use the template

Likewise, anything between <includeonly> and </includeonly> will be processed and displayed only when the page is being included, but not when the template page is being viewed directly, and is useful in situations such as:

  • Categorizing pages which include the template. Note: when changing the categories applied by a template in this fashion, the categorization of the pages which include that template may not be updated until some time later: this is handled by the job queue . To force the re-categorization of a particular page, open that page for editing and save it without changes.
  • Ensuring that the template's code is not executed when viewing the template page itself. Typically this is because it expects parameters, and its execution without parameters has an undesired result.

Everything outside <noinclude> and <includeonly> is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page. The focus is on what is inside these two tags.

Everything outside <onlyinclude> tags is discarded in the transclusion. Even sections tagged includeonly are discarded in the transclusion unless they are also tagged as onlyinclude. The focus is on what is outside this tag.

Nesting of these tags is also possible.

The three partial transclusion tags enable all possible combinations of what is processed and rendered. Comments also fill a role.

سازماندهی الگوها

برای کارآمد بودن الگوها، کابران باید بتوانند آنها را پیدا کنند و نحوهٔ استفاده از آنها را بدانند.

To find them, users can:

  1. Click صفحه‌های ویژه > همهٔ صفحات
  2. In the فضای نام: list, choose Template and click برو.

To give usage information, include an example like this one on the template page:

<noinclude>
== Usage ==
Welcome users:
{{Thankyou|reason=your reason|signature=your signature}}
</noinclude>

Then, an editor can simply copy and paste the example to use the template.

پیوند به یک الگو

A template page can be linked to like any other wiki page. For example, the link Template:Navbar is generated using the wikicode [[Template:Navbar]].

On many wikis, Template:Tl can be used to provide a link to a template formatted in a way that shows the "double curly-braces" wikicode necessary to transclude the template without actually doing the tranclusion. For example, the code {{tl|Navbar}} may be used to create the link {{Navbar}}.

This construct is commonly used in template documentation, on help pages, and on talk pages when referring to templates. The same effect can be achieved by using <code>{{[[Template:Navbar|Navbar]]}}</code>, but the {{tl}} approach involves much less typing. On any given wiki the Tl template, if it exists, may or may not render the text in a "code" element, as shown here. If not, another similarly named template may do so. See, for example, the "See also" section of the documentation of en:Template:Tl at the English Wikipedia.

Copying from one wiki to another

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

کد مدیاویکی

If you have import rights (Specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Check the box "شامل شدن الگوها".
    • Uncheck the box "فقط نسخهٔ فعلی شامل شود، نه کل تاریخچه".
    • Click "برون‌بری".
  2. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates. If it doesn't work also check for red links listed under "Pages transcluded onto the current version of this page:", below the edit box. If there are any repeat the above steps for these as well.

After successfully importing the template and all its linked templates from the other wiki, edit it to change customisations to suit your wiki. For example to change a logo, remove redundant categories or red links.

Extensions

An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page راهنما:افزونه:توابع تجزیه‌کننده and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

CSS and JavaScript code

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy those classes to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  2. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

جستارهای وابسته

External links