Help:Шаблёны

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Templates and the translation is 29% complete.

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Калі Вы маеце стандартны тэкст, які трэба зьмясьціць на некалькі старонак, на дапамогу прыходзяць шаблёны МэдыяВікі. У адрозьненьне ад дапаўненьняў і мэдыяфайлаў, для шаблёнаў няма адмысловага сховішча. Шаблёны могуць быць створаныя з нуля ці скапіюванага з паўторнага тэксту, перанесеныя зь іншай вікі, напрыклад, Вікіпэдыі, пасьля чаго імпартаваныя ў мэтавую вікі.

Стварэньне

Шаблёны — гэта стандартныя вікі-старонкі, зьмест які створаны дзеля ўключэньня (ўбудаваньня) ў іншыя старонкі. Пагадненьне па назвах шаблёнаў раіць пачынаць іх з "Шаблён:", што дадае іх у адпаведную прастору назваў; апроч гэтага, Вы можаце ствараць іх як любую іншую старонку.

Вось найпрасьцейшы спосаб выкарыстаньня шаблёнаў. Калі Вы ствараеце старонку з назвай «Шаблён:Вітаем» і зьместам:

Вітаем! Запрашаем у Вікіпэдыю.

дык Вы стварылі свой першы шаблён! Калі пасьля гэтага Вы ўставілі код:

{{Вітаем}}

на якую-небудзь іншую старонку, пры ейным праглядзе Вы ўбачыце тэкст «Вітаем! Запрашаем у Вікіпэдыю.» замест {{Вітаем}}. Зьмест шаблёну «перадаецца» на іншую старонку, то бок ён уключаны ў яе.

Цяпер Вы можаце ўставіць {{Вітаем}} у любое месца старонкі, дзе хочаце яго вывесьці. Уявіце, што ён выкарыстоўваецца на 100 старонках. Калі пасьля Вы зьменіце зьмест шаблёну на:

Прывітаньне! Запрашаем у гэтую дзівосную вікі.

і зазірнеце на ўсе гэтыя 100 старонак, дык пабачыце на іх новы тэкст замест першапачатковага. Такім чынам, Вы зьмянілі зьмест 100 старонак, не рэдагуючы іх, проста зьмяніўшы перададзены ў іх шаблён.

Гэта асноўны мэханізм. Ёсьць яшчэ некалькі дадатковых можнасьцяў, якія ўзбагачаюць гэты мэханізм і робяць шаблёны вельмі патрэбнымі.

Выкарыстаньне

Шаблёны можна ўстаўляць на іншыя старонкі наступнымі спосабамі:

  • {{Назва}} — як апісана вышэй, гэтая спасылка будзе дынамічна замененая на актуальны зьмест [[Шаблён:Назва]] ў той момант, калі загружаецца старонка з шаблёнам. У кодзе старонкі спасылка застанецца нязьменнай.
  • {{падстаноўка:Назва}} — калі ўжытая такая спасылка на шаблён, яна будзе замененая аднойчы на ўвесь зьмест [[Шаблён:Назва]] ў момант, калі захоўваецца старонка са спасылкай: копія зьместу [[Шаблён:Назва]] будзе падстаўлены замест спасылкі на шаблён. Ягоны зьмест становіцца неад'емнай часткай мэтавай старонкі і можа быць рэдагаваны звычайна, асобна ад арыгіналу. Заўвага: наступныя зьмены ў зьмесьце шаблёны не адлюструюцца на старонцы са спасылкай на шаблён.
  • {{safesubst:Назва}} — быў уведзены, каб дазволіць падстаноўку, якая не зьмяняе ўключэньне, глядзіце w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{msgnw:Назва}} ўключае шаблён у форме, якая адлюстроўвае яго ў выглядзе сырой вікі-разьметкі (як гэта робіць <nowiki>) пры выкліку старонкі, якая яго ўтрымлівае.

Увогуле, звычайная вікістаронка таксама можа служыць шаблёнам проста шляхам пазначэньня ейнай прасторы назваў, напрыклад:

  • {{Шаблён:Назва старонкі}} ўлучае [[Шаблён:Назва старонкі]]
  • {{Talk:Назва старонкі}} ўлучае [[Talk:Назва старонкі]]
  • {{:Назва старонкі}} ўлючае [[Назва старонкі]]
    • {{падстаноўка::Назва старонкі}} замяняе сябе на зьмест [[Назва старонкі]]

Калі такая прастора назваў адсутнічае, шаблёнам лічыцца поўная назва:

  • {{Бэ:Паліца}} ўлучае [[Шаблён:Бэ:Паліца]]

Парамэтры

Дзеля ўзбагачэньня мэханізму ўлучэньня МэдыяВікі дазваляе перадаваць у шаблёне парамэтры. Яны дазваляюць шаблёну выдаваць розны зьмест ці выдаваць розныя паводзіны.

Уявім, што Вы хочаце ўставіць невялічкую падзяку на старонцы гутарак іншых удзельнікаў, кшталту:

Template:Дзякую

Нататка з падзякай мецьме прычыну (у дадзеным выпадку — «усе Вашыя намаганьні») і подпіс («Я»). Вашая мэта — каб кожны ўдзельнік быў здольны падзякаваць любому іншаму зь якой-кольвек прычыны.

So that the note will look similar everywhere it is used, you can define a template called Template:Thankyou, for example. Although the note should look similar whenever a user thanks another user, its specific contents (i.e. the reason and the signature) will be different. For that reason, you should pass them as parameters. If we ignore the remaining elements to format the box and place the image, the core content of the template will be this:

'''Невялічкая падзяка…'''
за {{{1}}}.
абдымаю, {{{2}}}

Notice the use of {{{1}}} and {{{2}}}. This is the way to identify, within templates, the parameters that will be passed in when the template is used. Note that, within the template, each parameter is surrounded by three braces: {{{ }}}. This is different from normal template name usage.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a "pipe" character (|). MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to the template in three ways: Anonymously, Numbered, and Named.

Ананімныя парамэтры

To pass in anonymous parameters, list the values of those parameters sequentially:

{{Thankyou|all your effort|Me}}

In this case, the {{Thankyou}} template receives parameters {{{1}}}=all your effort and {{{2}}}=Me, producing:

A little thank you... for all your effort. hugs, Me

The order in which anonymous parameters are passed in is crucial to its behavior. Reversing the order of the parameters, like so:

{{Thankyou|Me|all your effort}}

would produce this result:

A little thank you... for Me. hugs, all your effort

Note: Identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc) works only with anonymous parameters. Any parameters identified by name, as shown below, will not be accessible to the template using ordinal numbers.

Note: If an equal sign appears inside the argument to an anonymous template parameter, that parameter may be misinterpreted as a named parameter (which is explained below in this document) treating the text before the equal sign as the parameter name and the text after it as the argument value. This is a common problem when you need to include an external link, or an HTML element with attributes (see Task 16235). The workaround is to use named parameters instead, or even numbered parameters as explained in the following section.

Нумараваныя парамэтры

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Me|1=your friendship}}

This time, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{1}}}=your friendship and {{{2}}}=Me, though they have been supplied in inverse order, and produces: A little thank you... for your friendship. hugs, Me

Пайменаваныя парамэтры

The third way of passing parameters is by name instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason}}}.
hugs, {{{signature}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

A little thank you... for being who you are. hugs, Me Named parameters are case-sensitive, so:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|Reason=being who you are|reason=being case-sensitive}}

produces: A little thank you... for being case-sensitive. hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

Дапомныя значэньні

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide their arguments, in this way:

{{Thankyou}}

in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:

A little thank you... for {{{1}}}. hugs, {{{2}}}

Since no arguments were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no argument is provided for parameter {{{reason}}}, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any argument results in the following: A little thank you... for everything. hugs, Me

Order of evaluation

With a few exceptions, template parameters are fully evaluated before they are passed to the template. So if one of your parameters is a call to another template, what is actually passed is the expanded parameter.

{{Thankyou|reason=visiting ({{Welcome}})|signature=Me}}

becomes

{{Thankyou|reason=visiting (Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.)|signature=Me}}

before it becomes:

A little thank you... for visiting (Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.). hugs, Me

In a few circumstances, this order of evaluation makes a difference from the alternative. (The alternative being to check the results of the template call to see if there are additional templates to be expanded.)

First, the name of the template can be expanded at the same time and in the same way as the parameters.

Thus

{{Thankyou in {{preferred language}}|signature=Me}}

might expand to

{{Thankyou in French|signature=Me}}

So that a template called Thankyou in French could display the thank you in the preferred language (however that was determined.)

Secondly, the template being called can't construct a template from pieces to be called later. A template that took the form {{start of call}}{{end of call}} would not work if start of call was {{Thankyou| and end of call was signature=Me}}.

Thirdly, the parameter being passed is expanded only once, rather than every place the parameter is used in the template. This is more efficient on the mediawiki server.

Finally, the template being called can't stop the parameter from being expanded altogether. Even if a template only uses a parameter in some circumstances, it will always have been expanded before the call was made.

Exceptions to the order of evaluation

In a few circumstance template parameters are not evaluated before being passed to the template.

Parameters to a subst: expansion are not evaluated, but are passed literally.

Some magic words are not evaluated as parameters. Their evaluation is delayed because they have side-effects. For example, {{foo| {{{DISPLAYTITLE:main page}}} }} would not

  1. evaluate DISPLAYTITLE
  2. change the display title of the page and
  3. call foo with parameter 1 being blank

instead

  1. DISPLAYTITLE would not be evaluated (yet)
  2. foo would be called with parameter 1 being {{{DISPLAYTITLE:main page}}}
  3. only if {{{1}}} is evaluated in foo, would the display title of the page be changed.

Which magic words are evaluated late like this has not been fully documented. Known ones include:

Recursion in templates

Including a template in itself won't throw MediaWiki into infinite recursion. MediaWiki will stop the recursion with the template's name in bold. For example, if the content of "Template:Aaaa" is "{{Aaaa}}", it'll show as "Template:Aaaa".

Кантроль уключэньня шаблёну

By default, a template's content is displayed in its entirety, both when viewed directly and when included in another page. However, you can control which parts of a template will be seen and included by the use of the <noinclude>, <includeonly> and <onlyinclude> tags.

Anything between <noinclude> and </noinclude> will be seen only when the template's page is being viewed directly, but not when it is included in another page. This is useful when you want to include text or code in a template that you do not want to propagate to any pages which include it, such as:

  • Category links when categorizing the template itself
  • interlanguage links to similar templates in other languages
  • Explanatory text about how to use the template

Likewise, anything between <includeonly> and </includeonly> will be processed and displayed only when the page is being included, but not when the template page is being viewed directly, and is useful in situations such as:

  • Categorizing pages which include the template. Note: when changing the categories applied by a template in this fashion, the categorization of the pages which include that template may not be updated until some time later: this is handled by the job queue . To force the re-categorization of a particular page, open that page for editing and save it without changes.
  • Ensuring that the template's code is not executed when viewing the template page itself. Typically this is because it expects parameters, and its execution without parameters has an undesired result.

Everything outside <noinclude> and <includeonly> is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page. The focus is on what is inside these two tags.

Everything outside <onlyinclude> tags is discarded in the transclusion. Even sections tagged includeonly are discarded in the transclusion unless they are also tagged as onlyinclude. The focus is on what is outside this tag.

Nesting of these tags is also possible.

The three partial transclusion tags enable all possible combinations of what is processed and rendered. Comments also fill a role.

Парадкаваньне шаблёнаў

For templates to be effective, users need to find them, and find out how to use them.

To find them, users can:

  1. Click Спэцыяльныя старонкі > Усе старонкі
  2. In the Прастора назваў: list, choose Template and click Паказаць.

To give usage information, include an example like this one on the template page:

<noinclude>
== Usage ==
Welcome users:
{{Thankyou|reason=your reason|signature=your signature}}
</noinclude>

Then, an editor can simply copy and paste the example to use the template.

Спасылкі на шаблён

A template page can be linked to like any other wiki page. For example, the link Template:Navbar is generated using the wikicode [[Template:Navbar]].

On many wikis, Template:Tl can be used to provide a link to a template formatted in a way that shows the "double curly-braces" wikicode necessary to transclude the template without actually doing the tranclusion. For example, the code {{tl|Navbar}} may be used to create the link {{Navbar}}.

This construct is commonly used in template documentation, on help pages, and on talk pages when referring to templates. The same effect can be achieved by using <code>{{[[Template:Navbar|Navbar]]}}</code>, but the {{tl}} approach involves much less typing. On any given wiki the Tl template, if it exists, may or may not render the text in a "code" element, as shown here. If not, another similarly named template may do so. See, for example, the "See also" section of the documentation of en:Template:Tl at the English Wikipedia.

Капіяваньне з аднае вікі ў іншую

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

Код МэдыяВікі

If you have import rights (Specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Check the box "Разам з шаблёнамі".
    • Uncheck the box "Экспартаваць толькі цяперашнюю вэрсію, бяз поўнай гісторыі".
    • Click "Экспартаваць".
  2. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates. If it doesn't work also check for red links listed under "Pages transcluded onto the current version of this page:", below the edit box. If there are any repeat the above steps for these as well.

After successfully importing the template and all its linked templates from the other wiki, edit it to change customisations to suit your wiki. For example to change a logo, remove redundant categories or red links.

Пашырэньні

An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page Extension:ParserFunctions and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

CSS і JavaScript

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy those classes to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  2. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

Глядзіце таксама

External links