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Si tiene textos que quiera incluir en varias páginas, la plantilla MediaWiki característica entra en juego (como la etiqueta encima de la cual se incluye en las páginas de la Ayuda de nombre). A diferencia de las extensiones y archivos de media, no hay repositorio central para plantillas. Las plantillas pueden ser recién escritas o para guardar trabajo duplicado ya hecho, exportado desde otra wiki (por ejemplo, Wikipedia), y luego importado a la wiki objetivo.


Las plantillas se crean igual que cualquier otra página del wiki, con la particularidad de que su nombre siempre vendrá con el prefijo Plantilla:.

El uso más simple de una plantilla es crear una página llamada "Template:Welcome" conteniendo:

¡Hola! Te damos la bienvenida al wiki

¡haz creado tu primera plantilla! Si luego insertas el código:


en cualquier otra página, cuando se visualice esa página aparecerá el texto "¡Hola! Te damos la bienvenida al wiki" en lugar de {{Welcome}}. El contenido de la plantilla se "transcluye" a la otra página, es decir, se integra en la página.

Puedes insertar {{Welcome}} en cualquier punto de cualquier página donde desees dar la bienvenida a alguien. Supongamos que se usa en 100 páginas. Si cambiases el contenido de la plantilla a:

¡Buenas! Bienvenido a este maravilloso wiki.

y revisas cualquiera de las 100 páginas donde se usa la plantilla, verás el nuevo texto en lugar del original. De esta forma, has cambiado el contenido de 100 páginas sin editarlas, porque la plantilla se transcluye a estas páginas.

Este es el mecanismo básico. Hay varias características adicionales de transclusión que enriquecen este mecanismo y hacen que las plantillas sean muy útiles.


Las plantillas son páginas wiki que se pueden usar en otras páginas de tres maneras:

  • {{Nombre}} incluye el contenido de la plantilla en el momento que la página que la contiene se descargue "[[Template:Name]]".
  • {{subst:Nombre}} inserta el contenido de la plantilla en el código de la página, en una forma que se pueden editar normalmente "[[Template:Name]]" después de que haya guardado su texto.
  • {{safesubst:Name}} — this was introduced to allow for substitution that doesn't break transclusion, see w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{Msgnw:Nombre}} cuando la página que contiene es descabellada, incluye la plantilla de una forma que lo muestra como la sintaxis del wiki en bruto, como <nowiki>.

In fact, an ordinary wiki page can also be used as a template, simply by specifying the namespace it resides in, so:

  • {{Template:Pagename}} includes [[Template:Pagename]]
  • {{Talk:Pagename}} includes [[Talk:Pagename]]
  • {{:Pagename}} includes [[Pagename]]
    • {{subst::Pagename}} replaces itself with the contents of [[Pagename]]

If no such namespace exists, the full title is assumed to be a template:

  • {{Foo:Bar}} includes [[Template:Foo:Bar]]


To enrich the mechanism of transclusion, MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to a template when it is transcluded. Parameters allow the template to produce different contents or have different behaviors.

Suppose you wish to insert a little thank you note in the talk page of other users, such as:

Flores de ejemplo
Un pequeño agradecimiento...
por todo tu esfuerzo.
abrazos, Yo

La nota de agradecimiento tendrá una razón (en este caso, "todo tu esfuerzo") y una firma ("Yo"). Tu objetivo es que cualquier usuario sea capaz de agradecer a cualquier otro usuario, por cualquier razón.

So that the note will look similar everywhere it is used, you can define a template called Template:Thankyou, for example. Although the note should look similar whenever a user thanks another user, its specific contents (i.e. the reason and the signature) will be different. For that reason, you should pass them as parameters. If we ignore the remaining elements to format the box and place the image, the core content of the template will be this:

'''Un pequeño agradecimiento...'''
por {{{1}}}
abrazos, {{{2}}}

Notice the use of {{{1}}} and {{{2}}}. This is the way to identify, within templates, the parameters that will be passed in when the template is used. Note that, within the template, each parameter is surrounded by three braces: {{{ }}}. This is different from normal template name usage.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a "pipe" character (|). MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to the template in three ways: Anonymously, Numbered, and Named.

Parámetros anónimos[edit]

To pass in anonymous parameters, list the values of those parameters sequentially:

{{Thankyou/es|todo tu esfuerzo|Yo}}

En este caso, la plantilla {{Thankyou/es}} recibe los parámetros {{{1}}}=todo tu esfuerzo y {{{2}}}=Yo, produciendo:

Flores de ejemplo
Un pequeño agradecimiento...
por todo tu esfuerzo.
abrazos, Yo

The order in which anonymous parameters are passed in is crucial to its behavior. Reversing the order of the parameters, like so:

{{Thankyou/es|Yo|todo tu esfuerzo}}

produciría este resultado:

Flores de ejemplo
Un pequeño agradecimiento...
por Yo.
abrazos, todo tu esfuerzo

Note: Identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc) works only with anonymous parameters. If your page identifies any parameter by number or name, as shown below, this method will no longer be available to the template which receives them.

Note: If an equal sign appears inside the argument to an anonymous template parameter, that parameter may be misinterpreted as a named parameter (which is explained below in this document) treating the text before the equal sign as the parameter name and the text after it as the argument value. This is a common problem when you need to include an external link, or an HTML element with attributes (see Task 16235). The workaround is to use named parameters instead, or even numbered parameters as explained in the following section.

Plantilla con parámetros numerados[edit]

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Yo|1=tu amistad}}

Esta vez, la plantilla {{Thankyou/es}} recibe los parámetros {{{1}}}=tu amistad y {{{2}}}=Yo, aunque hayan sido provistos en el orden inverso, y produce:

Flores de ejemplo
Un pequeño agradecimiento...
por tu amistad.
abrazos, Yo

Plantilla con los parámetros nombrados[edit]

The third way of passing parameters is by name, instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''Un pequeño agradecimiento...'''
por {{{razón}}}.
abrazos, {{{firma}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for being who you are.
hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

Valores predeterminados[edit]

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide their arguments, in this way:


in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:

Flores de ejemplo
Un pequeño agradecimiento...
por {{{1}}}.
abrazos, {{{2}}}

Since no arguments were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no argument is provided for parameter {{{reason}}}, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any argument results in the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for everything.
hugs, Me

Order of evaluation[edit]

Template parameters are fully evaluated before they are passed to the template. So if one of your parameters is a call to another template, what is actually passed is the expanded parameter.

{{Thankyou|reason=visiting ({{Welcome}})|signature=Me}}


{{Thankyou|reason=visiting (Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.)|signature=Me}}

before it becomes:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for visiting (Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.).
hugs, Me

In a few circumstances, this order of evaluation makes a difference from the alternative. (The alternative being to check the results of the template call to see if there are additional templates to be expanded.)

First, the name of the template can be expanded at the same time and in the same way as the parameters.


{{Thankyou in {{preferred language}}|signature=Me}}

might expand to

{{Thankyou in french|signature=Me}}

So that a template called Thankyou in french could display the thank you in the preferred language (however that was determined.)

Secondly, the template being called can't construct a template from pieces to be called later. A template that took the form {{start of call}}{{end of call}} would not work if start of call was {{Thankyou| and end of call was signature=Me}}.

Thirdly, the parameter being passed is expanded only once, rather than every place the parameter is used in the template. This is more efficient on the mediawiki server.

Finally, the template being called can't stop the parameter from being expanded altogether. Even if a template only uses a parameter in some circumstances, it will always have been expanded before the call was made.

Recursion in templates[edit]

Including a template in itself won't throw MediaWiki into infinite recursion. MediaWiki will stop the recursion with the template's name in bold. For example, if the content of "Template:Aaaa" is "{{Aaaa}}", it'll show as "Template:Aaaa".

Inclusión de Control de plantilla[edit]

Puede controlar la inclusión en la plantilla de la utilización de <noinclude> e <includeonly>.

Cualquier cosa entre <noinclude> y </noinclude> serán procesados y sólo aparece cuando la página se está viendo directamente, no estará incluido en el resultado de la plantilla cuando esta sea usada. Las posibles aplicaciones son:

  • Adjudicando Categorías a las plantillas
  • Interlanguage enlaces a las plantillas similares en otros idiomas
  • Texto explicativo acerca de cómo utilizar la plantilla

Lo contrario es <includeonly>. Texto entre <includeonly> y </includeonly> serán procesados y se mostrará sólo cuando la página vaya a ser incluida. La aplicación es evidente para añadir todas las páginas que contengan una determinada plantilla a un categoría, sin poner la propia plantilla en esa categoría.

  • Categorizing pages which include the template. Note: when changing the categories applied by a template in this fashion, the categorization of the pages which include that template may not be updated until some time later: this is handled by the job queue. To force the re-categorization of a particular page, open that page for editing and save it without changes.
  • Ensuring that the template's code is not executed when viewing the template page itself. Typically this is because it expects parameters, and its execution without parameters has an undesired result.

Everything outside <noinclude> and <includeonly> is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page. The focus is on what is inside these two tags.

Everything outside <onlyinclude> tags is discarded in the transclusion. Even sections tagged includeonly are discarded in the transclusion unless they are also tagged as onlyinclude. The focus is on what is outside this tag.

Nesting of these tags is also possible.

The three partial transclusion tags enable all possible combinations of what is processed and rendered. Comments also fill a role.

Organización de plantillas[edit]

Para que las plantillas sean efectivas los usuarios necesitan encontrarlas y ser capaces de utilizarlas. Una técnica simple es incluir un ejemplo es la página de la plantilla.

Para encontrarlos, los usuarios pueden:

  1. Hacer clic en Páginas especiales > Todas las páginas
  2. En la lista Espacio de nombres:, elegir Template y hacer clic en Mostrar.

To give usage information, include an example like this one on the template page:

== Usage ==
Welcome users:
{{Thankyou|reason=your reason|signature=your signature}}

A continuación, un editor puede simplemente copiar y pegar el ejemplo para crear una página similar.

Enlace a una plantilla[edit]

To link to a template instead of including it, use the {{tl}} template. The name of the template the editor wants to link to goes after the vertical pipe. Por ejemplo: {{tl|navbar}} links to the {{navbar}} template.

Copying from one wiki to another[edit]

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

Código de MediaWiki[edit]

If you have import rights (Specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Marca la opción "Incluir plantillas".
    • Desmarca la opción "Incluye sólo la revisión actual, no el historial de revisiones al completo.".
    • Haz clic en "Exportar".
  2. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates. If it doesn't work also check for red links listed under "Pages transcluded onto the current version of this page:", below the edit box. If there are any repeat the above steps for these as well.

After successfully importing the template and all its linked templates from the other wiki, edit it to change customisations to suit your wiki. For example to change a logo, remove redundant categories or red links.


An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page ParserFunctions and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

Código CSS y JavaScript[edit]

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy those classes to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  2. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

Véase también[edit]