User:Mooeypoo/VisualEditor Development

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Below are the full steps, as I've experienced them multiple times, in setting up a working development environment for MediaWiki and VisualEditor.

Please note that this isn't an installation guide, this article is specifically meant to help contributors set up their system for contributions to MediaWiki core and VisualEditor.


Everything in this guide already appears in the various guides online, either in GitHub or in MediaWiki documentation.

However, from my experience, it tends to get a bit confusing to shift from one guide to the other, especially if you're just starting out with this type of development. So, I grouped everything together into one single newbie-friendly tutorial. If you have anything to add to this, feel free.


This guide assumes the user is working with a Linux-based system. I will concentrate on Debian / Ubuntu because that's the most beginner-friendly distribution out there, but each step also has information about other distributions.

If your system is Windows, I recommend either using MediaWiki-Vagrant or install Linux under a Virtual Machine. VirtualBox or VMWare Player both work well in my experience. If you go with Vagrant, ignore this guide and follow the vagrant guide instead, it will handle setting up a development environment for MediaWiki and any extensions you set it up with.

So, in this document I assume that:

  • You work with a Debian/Ubuntu linux distribution.
  • You already have LAMP installed on your system (Apache/MySQL/PHP) or similar configuration that allows for PHP and MySQL.

Request a developer account[edit]

The first step in getting into MediaWiki development is to ask for a developer access. This will allow you to make contributions through gerrit.

  1. Request wikitech account

Note: The 'instance shell account name' is used in the "username" field whenever you contact gerrit to pull, clone, push, or review code. Whenever you see this link "ssh://<username>" the 'username' is your instance shell account name you chose. It's also public, so choose wisely.

  1. Sign up to Gerrit

You have to sign up to both sites. Use the same email details.

Setting up the system[edit]

Set up git[edit]

The best information about installing git is on GitHub documents. To save you the trouble, here it is in sequence for Debian / Ubuntu systems.


$ apt-get install git

For other distributions, follow the instructions at the git website.

Set up your details[edit]

These details should match the details you signed up to gerrit and wikitech

$ git config --global "Your Name Here"
$ git config --global " 

Optionally, you can set up colors in your terminal. This is useful to see errors or to spot trailing spaces.

$ git config --global color.ui true

Public keys[edit]

To be able to use ssh with gerrit, you must set up a public key gerrit can use to identify you are who say you are. This procedure was taken almost-verbatim from the GitHub tutorial.

$ cd ~/.ssh
# List the files in your .ssh directory:
$ ls# Create a new ssh key, using the provided email as a label
$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -C ""
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/you/.ssh/id_rsa):
# Add the key in the system
$ ssh-add id_rsa

Now you need to add the public key to both wikitech and gerrit.

$ sudo apt-get install xclip
# Downloads and installs xclip. If you don't have `apt-get`, you might need to use another installer (like `yum`)
$ xclip -sel clip < ~/.ssh/
# Copies the contents of the file to your clipboard
  1. Add to wikitech settings
  2. Add to gerrit settings

Install git-review[edit]

Next, we need to work with git review. This will allow us to send our work to gerrit so other developers can review it and (eventually) merge it into the codebase.

The following instructions were taken from this page. You can see the full instructions there, as well as troubleshooting help.

$ sudo apt-get install python-pip
$ sudo easy_install pip
$ sudo pip install git-review

Configure git review to use your gerrit username:

$ git config --global --add gitreview.username "gerritusername"

Note: Do not install git-review via apt. It looks like it works, but doesn't.

If you do not have easy_install set up, try

sudo apt-get install python-setuptools

Setting up MediaWiki[edit]

The next step is to install and set up MediaWiki from the development repository. It's also a good idea to set it up so you can test your code on a running local development wiki.

Clone the repository[edit]

In your terminal, go to wherever you want your new mediawiki folder to be located and proceed with the following steps:

$ git clone ssh://<username> <folder name>

Where <username> is the 'instance shell account name' you chose when you signed up to wikitech and <folder name> is an optional entry for you to specify a folder for the code. If you don't specify the folder, the code will be cloned into a folder with the repo name -- in this case, a folder called 'core'

After you've done that, you should initiailize git-review on this folder.

$ git review -s

The system will likely ask you for your gerrit username. Again, this is the same 'instance shell account name'. Get used to it, that's your ssh username from now on.

Install LAMP[edit]

If your system already has some web service, php and mysql support, you should skip to Install Mediawiki (next section), although some php5 libraries indicated here are not standard and may not already be installed.

$ sudo apt-get install apache2
$ sudo apt-get install mysql-server php5-mysql
$ sudo mysql_install_db
$ sudo apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5 php5-mcrypt php5-curl php5-intl php5-gd

Install MediaWiki[edit]

Assuming your system already has some web service, php and mysql support, you should now install mediawiki so you can have a local working system you can use to test with.

  • Create a MySQL database for your development wiki.
  • Optional: In case you don't know or didn't do this before, the mediawiki folder must be visible in the public web folder. In Apache, that folder is usually /var/www, and you can add a symbolic link from your MediaWiki installation to this folder so your wiki can be accessed through the browser:
$ ln -s <path to your mediawiki folder> /var/www/<symbolic name>

The symbolic name is usually what you see in your browser url, like 'wiki' in http://localhost/wiki

  • Navigate to http://localhost/wiki (or whatever other name you chose for your link) and follow the installation instructions to install MediaWiki.

Setting up Parsoid[edit]

In order to work with VisualEditor we will need to set up the parsoid service. These instructions are also available in the Parsoid installation page.

Before you begin[edit]

If you are using Parsoid in conjunction with VisualEditor, note that they are developed in parallel and upgrades to one often require a corresponding upgrade to the other. If in doubt, please check the Extension:VisualEditor page and follow its setup instructions first.

Of course, Parsoid can be used stand-alone (to convert wikitext to HTML DOM and vice-versa) and if you don't need VisualEditor, you can ignore the above.

If you are a developer, or if you lack access to sudo apt-get because you're on shared hosting, you probably want to follow the Developer Setup instructions. This page documents setup for a typical user of Parsoid using the native software packaging for your operating system. (Although, if your preferred operating system is not listed here, you might try the developer setup instructions — good luck!)

If your shared hosting doesn't allow you to install Parsoid, you can also try this workaround: Installation on a shared host.

If you run into problems, consult the troubleshooting pages. If you'd like to contribute your problems and suggested solutions to others, we encourage you to add that information to the troubleshooting pages, in order to keep this page of typical installation instructions as clear and simple as possible.

First you will need to install Parsoid. After this is done, skip to the #Configuration section of this page in order to ensure that Parsoid can talk to your mediawiki instance.

Please note that Parsoid 0.10.0 may not work with node 12, as described on Phabricator.


Ubuntu / Debian[edit]

Parsoid switched package repositories on 2015-09-17. If you installed Parsoid prior to this date, you will need to follow the instructions below to add the new Parsoid repository to get updated packages. If you are installing Parsoid as a new package, follow the instructions below.
Parsoid updated its GPG key on 2016-07-27 and on 2019-06-13 respectively. If you installed Parsoid prior to this date, you will need to follow the instructions below to add the new Parsoid GPG key before you will get updated packages. If you are installing Parsoid as a new package, follow the instructions below.

These packages work on all architectures and with current distros: Ubuntu 14+ and Debian testing, unstable or wheezy (stable) with backports enabled. See the manual installation on Linux or Mac OS X instructions if your distribution is older & doesn't have nodejs ≥ v8.x available.

Import the repository gpg key: (key created on 2019-06-13 with validity 2029-04-23)

sudo apt install dirmngr
sudo apt-key advanced --keyserver --recv-keys AF380A3036A03444

If the last command above isn't working (gpgkeys: key AF380A3036A03444 canot be retrieved), you can try another key server. This one should work :

sudo apt-key advanced --keyserver --recv-keys AF380A3036A03444

or (if the firewall is blocking)

sudo apt-key advanced --keyserver hkp:// --recv-keys AF380A3036A03444

Add the Wikimedia repository:

  • Ubuntu
sudo apt-add-repository "deb jessie-mediawiki main"

On ubuntu 16.04 you may need to install "software-properties-common" in order to run "apt-add-repository"

sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
  • Debian

With Jessie and Stretch, first make sure you have backports enabled, because nodejs 4.x is too old to run the latest release of Parsoid. Then, add the parsoid repository:

echo "deb jessie-mediawiki main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/parsoid.list


sudo apt install apt-transport-https
sudo apt update && sudo apt install parsoid

Then, open the config file in /etc/mediawiki/parsoid/config.yaml and update it to reflect your API URL. See the #Configuration section below for details.


  • Modifications brought to the configuration file will only become active after restarting the service by service parsoid restart.
  • The repository will contain the latest available version of Parsoid. Older versions can be installed manually.
  • The default port used is 8142 (not 8000 so you'll need to, for example, change $wgVirtualRestConfig['modules']['parsoid']['url'] in LocalSettings.php).
  • The log file is /var/log/parsoid/parsoid.log, and is automatically rotated.

Caveats about the deb:

  • With nodejs version 4.x (default version included in debian), parsoid may fail to start. Upgrading nodejs (version 10.x worked in one case) version may be required to solve the issue.
  • If you are on an older distribution and nodejs >= v4 is not available, see the Nodejs installation instructions. You might be able to get a recent packaged version of nodejs. If you have to install node.js from source (we recommend nave), you'll need to use the Parsoid/Developer Setup instructions.
  • Some folks report that you should also ensure that curl is installed as well: sudo apt-get install curl. Please add some more details here if you find this to be true on your setup.
    • 2018-09-20 during our upgrade from mw v29 to 31 , We already had curl installed. when i tested ve got this:
Error loading data from server: internal_api_error_Exception: [0db2f13b5ceecfae5a4c1a98] Exception caught: PHP cURL extension missing. Check Would you like to retry?

solved with

apt install php-curl
systemctl reload apache2

PS: after posting this noticed mentions similar .


Parsoid is available in AUR under aur/parsoid (release version) or aur/parsoid-git (development version). Install however you would usually install AUR packages. Enable and start the parsoid service (systemctl enable parsoid; systemctl start parsoid) and configure per below. Remember to restart the service for changes to take effect.

This installs to /usr/share/webapps/parsoid/ by default.

RedHat/CentOS 7[edit]

Parsoid is available from the Git repository.

Try creating an empty directory and checking out a copy of Parsoid:

yum install git npm
git clone --recursive
git clone
cd parsoid
npm install

If you want to use a specific branch, use something like

git clone --single-branch --branch v0.9.0 --recursive
git clone --single-branch --branch v0.9.0

This should dump everything you need into the current directory. Copy the default configuration (which configures the Parsoid server to listen at http://localhost:8000):

cp config.example.yaml config.yaml

Edit this file per #Configuration (below), then start the server with:

node bin/server.js

At this point, opening a browser to localhost:8000 should display a page with links to the Parsoid documentation on

As one final step, change your startup files (init.d) to add a task to relaunch node bin/server.js on server startup.

RedHat/CentOS 8[edit]

dnf install git npm make python2 gcc-c++ -y
cd /opt
git clone --recursive
git clone
cd parsoid
PYTHON=python2 npm install
cp config.example.yaml config.yaml
chown apache:apache /opt/parsoid

Edit config.yaml. You may need to change uri parameter. Often localhost uri works, and default setting may be ok.

Create this systemd unit file:

# /etc/systemd/system/parsoid.service
Description=Mediawiki Parsoid web service on node.js


ExecStart=/usr/bin/node /opt/parsoid/bin/server.js

Create /etc/firewalld/services/parsoid.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
  <description>Wikitext converter for Mediawiki</description>
  <port protocol="tcp" port="8000"/>

Publish, add and activate the newly defined firewalld service.

firewall-cmd --reload
firewall-cmd --add-service=parsoid --permanent
firewall-cmd --reload

Enable the systemd service and verify if Parsoid is reachable.

systemctl enable parsoid --now
curl http://localhost:8000


If you are using the MediaWiki-Vagrant virtual machine, the parsoid role sets up a working Parsoid. If you use the visualeditor role, it will enable parsoid as well.



  • Install Nodejs x86
  • Install Git x86

With nodejs you have to install the build tools using PowerShell 32-bit (as administrator) (this may take a while)

npm install --global --production windows-build-tools

You may need to update your npm version to avoid errors

npm -g install npm@latest

npm@next is broken. See

If your current directory is in C:\windows\system32, Perform the following command

cd $env:userprofile

Install parsoid

npm install parsoid

Note: if you get errors 'no such file or directory on 'c:\user\{username}\package.json' run the following:

npm init

or enter the directory in which the package.json file should be located:


Copy the default config and configure parsoid

copy %USERPROFILE%\node_modules\parsoid\localsettings.example.js %USERPROFILE%\node_modules\parsoid\localsettings.js

If you use the config.yaml configuration file, copy that file from the example:

copy %USERPROFILE%\node_modules\parsoid\config.example.yaml %USERPROFILE%\node_modules\parsoid\config.yaml

and edit the content according to your wiki installation.

Run parsoid

C:\Users\USERNAME\node_modules\parsoid>node bin/server.js

or on Windows 10+

cd %APPDATA%\npm\node_modules\parsoid
node bin/server.js

You should open your php.ini file and uncomment the next php modules:

  • extension=php_curl.dll
  • extension=php_openssl.dll

otherwise you will get troubles with Parsoid


This is a version of Parsoid created by community. The original repository can be found at TheNets's GitHub.

Versions available: 0.8, 0.9, 0.10, 0.11.

The images was created over Alpine image.


How to run[edit]

To start Parsoid run the command below. Just pay attention to the MediaWiki version and choose a compatible Parsoid version.

# For MediaWiki <= 1.30
docker run -d -p 8080:8000 -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_localhost=http://localhost/w/api.php thenets/parsoid:0.8

# For MediaWiki >= 1.31 & <= 1.32
docker run -d -p 8080:8000 -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_localhost=http://localhost/w/api.php thenets/parsoid:0.10

# For MediaWiki >= 1.33
docker run -d -p 8080:8000 -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_localhost=http://localhost/w/api.php thenets/parsoid:0.11


How to add more than one domain:

docker run -d -p 8080:8000 \
            -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_foobar= \
            -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_example= \
            -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_localhost=http://localhost/w/api.php \

How to expose on a specific port: (You can use arbitrary port numbers which are not already in use)

# Expose port 8081
docker run -d -p 8081:8000 -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_localhost=http://localhost/w/api.php thenets/parsoid:0.11

# Expose port 8142
docker run -d -p 8142:8000 -e PARSOID_DOMAIN_localhost=http://localhost/w/api.php thenets/parsoid:0.11

For more information about Docker setup, check the GitHub page.


Parsoid should be configured via edits to the static config.yaml file. If you are using an version of Parsoid older than v0.6.0, you will have to edit localsettings.js, which also allows non-static configs for the time being.

You can find an example configuration file on github.

Starting with Parsoid 0.6.0, the configuration file is located here:

  • /etc/mediawiki/parsoid/config.yaml

If the api.php file for your wiki is not in the default 'http://localhost/w/api.php' edit the config.yaml file and modify the uri parameter to point to the correct location:

  - module: lib/index.js
    entrypoint: apiServiceWorker
          # This is the only required parameter,
          # the URL of you MediaWiki API endpoint.
        - uri: ''
          # The "domain" is used for communication with Visual Editor
          # and RESTBase.  It defaults to the hostname portion of
          # the `uri` property above, but you can manually set it
          # to an arbitrary string.
          domain: ''  # optional

The uri property gives the API path to your local wiki. The domain property is optional; it defaults to the hostname used in the uri property if not explicitly set, but it can be an arbitrary string (it doesn't actually have to resolve in DNS).

If your wiki is inside a reverse proxy configuration or similar, you can set the hostname in uri to an internal hostname or IP that actually points to your wiki internal IP address, to avoid requests going to the public IP address and then routed back again to the internal server. However, be sure that your web server actually routes requests with that hostname to the wiki (if the server is configured to serve different things for multiple sites or subdomains).

For example: you have a wiki at with a public IP behind a proxy, and the actual application server is on a second internal server which only serves requests to the wiki when accessed from the hostname but not with other hostnames (because it serves various different websites). You may need to set an /etc/hosts alias of and set up your web server to have as an alias to Then you can use that hostname in the uri property.

By default, Parsoid opens a UDP socket and send each minute some metrics about the Parsoid heap to a statsD server. If you want to send instead these metrics to the logging backend (with the "trace" log level), add in config.yaml:

    type: log

localsettings.js (or settings.js) as configuration file[edit]

If you prefer to use localsettings.js as your configuration file, in the config.yaml file uncomment the localsettings path like this:

  - module: lib/index.js
    entrypoint: apiServiceWorker
        # For backwards compatibility, and to continue to support non-static
        # configs for the time being, optionally provide a path to a
        # localsettings.js file.  See localsettings.example.js
        localsettings: ./localsettings.js

and comment mwApis, uri and domain parameters like this:

        #- # This is the only required parameter,
          # the URL of you MediaWiki API endpoint.
          #uri: 'http://localhost/w/api.php'
          # The "domain" is used for communication with Visual Editor
          # and RESTBase.  It defaults to the hostname portion of
          # the `uri` property below, but you can manually set it
          # to an arbitrary string.
          #domain: 'localhost'  # optional

In this approach the configuration file lives in one of the following locations:

  • /etc/mediawiki/parsoid/settings.js (if you have installed from our Linux packages)
  • <parsoid directory>/api/localsettings.js (if you have followed the developer setup instructions)

Most configuration options are described in the file itself. The only required edit is to update it to reflect your API URL, something like:

parsoidConfig.setMwApi({ uri: '', domain: '', prefix: 'myspecialwiki' });

The prefix is an arbitrarily-selected short string identifying your local wiki, used in log messages. The prefix is also optional, an arbitrary unique string will be generated if it is omitted. Make sure that the VisualEditor configuration uses the same "domain" and/or "prefix" values as Parsoid. (See the VisualEditor configuration instructions.)

Multiple wikis sharing the same parsoid service[edit]

If you have multiple wikis, make sure the domain string (and/or prefix if you are using localsettings.js as config file) is unique for each. Multiple wikis sharing a single host might need to explicitly set the domain property to an arbitrary unique string for each wiki.

Example of configuration in config.yaml for multiple wikis:

  - module: lib/index.js
    entrypoint: apiServiceWorker
        - # First wiki
          uri: ''
          domain: ''  # optional
        - # If you have another wiki on a different domain
          uri: ''
          domain: ''  # optional
        - # If you have another wiki on the same domain
          uri: ''
          domain: 'wiki2'  # optional

Example of configuration in localsettings.js for multiple wikis:

parsoidConfig.setMwApi({ uri: '', domain: '', prefix: 'myspecialwiki' });
// If you have another wiki on a different domain:
parsoidConfig.setMwApi({ uri: '', domain: '', prefix: 'myotherspecialwiki' });
// If you have another wiki on the same domain:
// Note that the domain and prefix can be arbitrary, they just need to be unique to this wiki.
// (And they shouldn't contain slashes.)
parsoidConfig.setMwApi({ uri: '', domain: 'wiki2', prefix: 'wiki2' });

See User:Mooeypoo/Troubleshooting#Configuration for additional troubleshooting help.

See Parsoid/Setup/RESTBase for information on how to configure a local RESTBase instance between your local VisualEditor and local Parsoid.

The Parsoid/Setup/RESTBase/Arbitrary domains page describes advanced RESTBase setup, but it may offer additional insight about the purpose of the prefix and domain properties.

Setting up VisualEditor[edit]

We're now at the stage where we can set up VisualEditor for both development and testing environment. You can see a fully detailed explanation on how to set VisualEditor up in the official setup page.

Clone the extension[edit]

In your terminal, go to your mediawiki folder and into /extensions. The VisualEditor repository must be cloned into the mediawiki/extensions folder.

$ git clone ssh://<username>

Activate the submodules

$ git submodule update --init

Add to LocalSettings.php[edit]

Open your mediawiki's LocalSettings.php file. Add the following to the end:


// OPTIONAL: Enable VisualEditor in other namespaces
// By default, VE is only enabled in NS_MAIN
//$wgVisualEditorNamespaces[] = NS_PROJECT;

// Enable by default for everybody
$wgDefaultUserOptions['visualeditor-enable'] = 1;

// Don't allow users to disable it
$wgHiddenPrefs[] = 'visualeditor-enable';

// OPTIONAL: Enable VisualEditor's experimental code features
//$wgVisualEditorEnableExperimentalCode = true;

Notice that if you're contributing code to VisualEditor, it might be a good idea to enable experimental features by uncommenting the line with wgVisualEditorEnableExperimentalCode = true

We also have to link VisualEditor with the parsoid service. Again, at the end of the LocalSettings.php file, add the following

// URL to the Parsoid instance
// MUST NOT end in a slash due to Parsoid bug
$wgVirtualRestConfig['modules']['parsoid']['url'] = 'http://localhost:8000';

Congratulations! You have a working environment with MediaWiki, VisualEditor and parsoid running.

Setting up grunt tests[edit]

VisualEditor contains 'grunt', a javascript task runner that includes tasks to verify the code. This is crucial - it allows you to spot errors (to code and to style) before you commit your work. To set up grunt in your new VisualEditor folder, run the following commands:

$ npm install
$ cd lib/ve
$ npm install 

Now go back to the main VisualEditor folder and test your environment.


Test your installation by going into your wiki. You should have "Edit" and "Edit Source" tabs. Click on "Edit" and make sure VisualEditor is loading properly. If it doesn't, or if there is only one "Edit" tab, please see the VisualEditor installation page for troubleshooting. Make sure parsoid's settings are correct and that the service is running.

Make sure to test grunt by typing

$ grunt test

From your extensions/VisualEditor folder.

Useful Tools[edit]

Your system is ready for development now. There are several tools that can help you start (and continue) working more easily.

gerrit reference[edit]

There's a very good gerrit reference here. Here's the quickie on how to work with gerrit:

To start a new patch, make sure your repository is updated by checking out master and pulling:

$ git checkout master
$ git pull
$ git submodule update 

Then, start a new branch for your code:

$ git checkout -b [BRANCH NAME] # See tips about branch name in the tutorial

Change your files, do what you do, then when you are done, check the changes you've made

$ git status

You should see a list of changed files.

If you see 'lib/ve' in your list of changed files, do not do 'git commit --all'. Instead, add individual files to the commit manually:

$ git add <path/to/file>

And then commit without --all

$ git commit

The commit note[edit]

Write a meaningful, helpful and explanatory commit note:

  • The first line in the commit message is the topic. Make it short and meaningful.
  • The commit message is separated by an empty line from the topic, and should explain the purpose of your fix and the point of your code. Think of other reviewers, explain to them what you did in your code and why so they have an easier time reviewing it.
  • If your fix is still under work and is not ready to be merged, start your topic with "[WIP]" (work in progress).

First commit in the branch[edit]

$ git commit --all

NOTE: Be careful. Since VisualEditor uses a lib/ve submodule, it may sometimes be marked as changed even though you didn't change it.

Amending a previous commit[edit]

If the commit already exists -- either because you're fixing up some existing branch or reviewing one from gerrit, you should make sure to amend the commit

$ git commit --all --amend

Note again that --all should only be there if there's no changes to lib/ve

Useful shortcuts[edit]

You'll work in the terminal quite a lot, so terminal shortcuts are very useful. Here are a couple that I am using. In order to set up shortcuts in the terminal, edit your ~/.bashrc file. You can add your own custom aliases and shortcuts at the end of it.

Note: Some of these are shamelessly stolen and adapted from Krinkle's aliases, so thank him when you catch him online.

Shortcut: update and activate parsoid[edit]

You can choose your own alias name, of course. This will update the Parsoid repository and run the service. It saves a lot of time instead of going to the parsoid folder and running node api/server.js every time. It also has the added benefit of updating parsoid to its latest 'master'.

alias goparsoid='cd [path/to/parsoid] && git remote update && git checkout origin/master && npm install && npm start'

Shortcut: update MediaWiki and VisualEditor[edit]

I use this every time I want to completely refresh my development system and make sure both MediaWiki and VisualEditor are up to date with the latest versions of the master branch.

alias updateve='cd [path/to/mediawiki] && echo "Updating MediaWiki" && git checkout master && git pull && cd extensions/VisualEditor && echo "Updating VisualEditor" && git checkout master && git pull'

Note: The new aliases won't work until you reload .bashrc

You can either close and reopen your terminal or run

$ reload ~/.bashrc

Useful Links[edit]