嵌入

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This page is a translated version of the page Transclusion and the translation is 23% complete.

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嵌入通常指把一个文档的内容引用到另一个文档里。在维基百科的上下文中,使用MediaWiki模板功能可以在多个文档中包含相同的内容,而无需单独编辑这些文档。模板嵌入是使用模板消息的一个通用方式,通过模板标签来实现,形式如下:

如何嵌入文字

Transclusion-simple.png
Transclusion-multiple-twit.png

要把任何页面嵌入到其它目标页面里,使用下面的代码:

Whenever the target page A is rendered, the entire content of the source page B (in this case, SOMEPAGE), will be rendered at the location where the transclusion tag was placed.

For example, you might decide to place a welcome message on every newcomer's talk page. Transclusion creates a "live" link between the template-page and the target-page(s) upon which the message should appear. When the template is edited, all the target-pages are edited too.

You might also decide to create a (template) page with your mailing address and include that template on not only your page, but all your friends' pages as well. When you move your television and couch to another apartment, you can change your address template, and that new information will automatically update on all your friends' pages.

Etymology

Ted Nelson coined the term "transclusion", as well as "hypertext" and "hypermedia", in his 1982 book Literary Machines.

Partial transclusion

By using "noinclude", "onlyinclude" and "includeonly" markup, it is possible to transclude part of a page rather than all of it. Such partial transclusions can also be achieved by transcluding from other pages such as subpages. It is often desirable not to transclude some information, such as template documentation and categories.

Transclusion markup

  • noinclude. The markup <noinclude>...</noinclude> means that the text between the tags will not be transcluded onto another page and will appear only on the page itself. This is useful for template documentation and categories.
  • includeonly. The markup <includeonly>...</includeonly> means that the text between the tags will only be used when the page is transcluded onto another page, and will not appear on the page itself. This can be useful, for example, for adding categories to pages transcluding a template, without adding the template itself to these categories.
  • onlyinclude. The markup <onlyinclude>...</onlyinclude> indicates that only text surrounded by "onlyinclude" markup should be transcluded onto another page, but will appear on the page itself if not accompanied by "includeonly" tags as well. This is the most subtle of the partial transclusion tags because it often overrules the others. If there is at least one pair of "onlyinclude" tags on a page, then whenever this page is transcluded, it is only the material within the "onlyinclude" tags which gets transcluded. There can be several such sections, and within each such section, some material might be further excluded by "noinclude" tags, and might also be surrounded by "includeonly" tags so that it does not appear on the original page itself. But material outside the "onlyinclude" tags will be ignored when the page is transcluded onto another page. This can be useful, for example, to repeat a small part of one page on a second one: just surround the small part by onlyinclude tags, and transclude it onto the second page. Note that unlike <noinclude> and <includeonly>, <onlyinclude> will take precedence over enclosing <nowiki> tags. In other words, <nowiki><onlyinclude>My content</onlyinclude></nowiki> produces only "My content" when transcluded.

Subpages

You can cut and paste the text to be transcluded into a subpage, then use the name of the subpage in the transclusion template. This approach can be used only where subpages are enabled; for example, on the English Wikipedia, subpages can be used only from User, Talk or Wikipedia pages; currently, subpages cannot be created from main article pages.

Example: you want to discuss the deletion and redirecting of Pussycat to Cat. First, create the subpage Talk:Pussycat/Let's delete Pussycat!, write your comment into it, then transclude it in Talk:Pussycat and Talk:Cat using the template {{Talk:Pussycat/Let's delete Pussycat!}}. Comments posted in either talk page will be shown in both.

Special pages

See also:w:Wikipedia:Transclusion#Special pages and Manual:$wgAllowSpecialInclusion

Some pages on Special:Specialpages can be transcluded, such as Special:AllPages, Special:PrefixIndex, Special:NewFiles, Special:NewPages, Special:RecentChanges and Special:RecentChangesLinked.

Sample: {{Special:Newpages/3}} gives 3 new pages.

URL parameters can be given like template parameters, e. g. {{Special:RecentChanges|namespace=10|limit=5}}.

Alternatives to transclusion by template

Occasionally you may want to use a template, but for one reason or another may not want to use transclusion. The automatic one-time copying of a template's code/text to the location of a template tag is called Template substitution or subclusion (substitution + transclusion). To subclude a template's code/text, the template tag is modified from the standard transclusion tag to a substitution tag, simply by adding subst:, creating a tag with the form: {{subst:template name}}.

Labeled Section Transclusion

An extension called Labeled Section Transclusion enables marked sections of text to be transcluded. An extension with a somewhat similar function is PageVariableExtension.

Semantic MediaWiki

The Semantic MediaWiki extension uses inline queries to query and display semantic data. There are currently two ways to perform transclusion or something similar:

  1. Transclusion proper. The display format "embedded" ensures that selected pages (mainspace articles, templates, etc.) are transcluded. As with templates, sections placed between noinclude tags will be omitted.
  2. Selected passages in a page can be assigned a property of type 'Text'. These selections can be requested by running an inline query for this type of property.

See inline queries for further information.

MediaWiki嵌入相關的頁面

模板

参见