Manuale:Pywikibot/PAWS

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Si veda Wikitech:PAWS per i dettagli

Questo documento contiene una veloce panoramica dell'uso di Pywikibot in un quaderno che esegue un'istanza di PAWS (Pywikibot: A Web Shell) presso i Wikimedia labs.

Si tenga presente che il copia/incolla del Terminale PAWS è attualmente supportato solo dai browser basati sul motore di rendering di Chromium (come Google Chrome, Opera o Safari). Se usi un altro browser, potresti dover riscrivere i comandi di questo manuale Il Terminale PAWS permette anche di salvare ed eseguire file bash, eseguibili con il comando bash file.sh
Attenzione Attenzione: All notebooks and terminals in PAWS are subject to termination without notice. You are encouraged to run your task on other places (such as Toolforge) if your task lasts for more than hours.

Crea un profilo Wikimedia

Per utilizzare il Terminale PAWS non serve nient'altro che un profilo su un progetto Wikimedia.

Una volta creato il profilo si controlli di aver effettuato l'accesso verificando che il proprio username compaia in alto a destra alla pagina https://test.wikipedia.org

Accedere a un quaderno

Per avviare un quaderno, andare all'indirizzo https://paws.wmflabs.org/paws/hub

Cliccare su accedere con MediaWiki (Sign in with MediaWiki) e permetti (Allow) a Utilizzare OAuth per l'autenticazione ("Use OAuth for Authentication"). La prima volta che accedi a un Terminale PAWS, devi creare un server. Clicca su Avvia il mio server (Start my Server"). Il server potrebbe impiegare qualche minuto ad avviarsi.

Una volta completato, si sarà rediretti all'URL https://paws.wmflabs.org/paws/user/<username>/tree

Avvia un Terminale

Per avviare un nuovo terminale,

  1. vai nella PAWS home di PAWS,
  2. clicca Nuovo sul lato destro e
  3. seleziona 'Terminale'.

Aprirà una nuova finestra con URL https://paws.wmflabs.org/paws/user/<username>/terminals/1, contenente un prompt '$' GNU/Linux.

Puoi aggiungere quest'URL ai preferiti e aprire il terminale quando preferisci. Se vuoi interagire con il Terminale come fosse un'applicazione, se usi Chromium puoi cliccare sul pulsante menù in alto a destra, poi su altri strumenti e quindi aggiungi al desktop e barrare la casella (mostra come finestra). A questo punto si potra aprire il Terminale come fosse qualsiasi altro programma installato sul dispositivo.

Il Terminale PAWS non è un emulatore, ma una vera shell bash eseguita su una vera installazione di GNU/Linux in un container docker, quindi puoi eseguire qualsiasi comando bash e usare qualsiasi comando sia disponibile sul sistema.

Puoi vedere alcuni dei comandi disponibili utilizzando

ls /bin/

.

$ ls /bin/
bash          cat            domainname  journalctl  mkdir          pwd         stty                            tar           zcmp
unzip2       chacl          echo        kill        mknod          rbash       su                              tempfile      zdiff
../..
$ ls /usr/bin/
2to3-3.4                 dvipdf                     lcf                         printf               systemd-path                         
X11                      dwp                        ld                          prlimit              systemd-run
../..

Login to the wiki

This will establish your account on the server and allow you to log in from the command line.

Il seguente comando dovrebbe confermare che la tua utenza è collegata a https://test.wikipedia.org/. Il collegamento utilizza OAuth, quindi non dovrebbe necessario inserire una password.

$ pwb.py login
Logging in to wikipedia:test as <username>
Logged in on wikipedia:test as <username>.

You can connect pywikibot to a different wiki by creating a file named user-config.py in your $HOME directory (/home/paws) and adding mylang and family variables:

mylang = 'test'
family = 'wikipedia'

Creare una pagina

Puoi creare una pagina, inserendo il seguente comando nel Terminale, sostituendo a '<username>' il tuo username e premendo 'Y' quando richiesto per confermare le modifiche.

$ pwb.py add_text -up -talk -page:"User talk:<username>" -text:"Hello. ~~~~"
Loading User talk:<username>...

>>> User talk:<username> <<<
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+ Hello. ~~~~

Do you want to accept these changes? ([Y]es, [N]o, [a]ll, open in [b]rowser): Y
Page [[User talk:<username>]] saved

Hai completato la tua prima modifica. Puoi visionare le modifiche apportate alla pagina https://test.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_talk:<username>.

Puoi sapere di più sugli script utilizzati eseguendoli con l'opzione '-help'.

$ pwb.py add_text -help
...

Fetch a page

Si possono scaricare più pagine contemporaneamente con il comando "listpages".

Per scaricare il contenuto della pagina che hai creato nella precedente sezione, inserisci il seguente comando:

$ pwb.py listpages -page:"User talk:<username>" -save
   1 <username>
Saving User talk:<username> to /home/paws/User_talk_<username>
1 page(s) found

Ora la pagina dovrebbe essere presente nella lista dei file di PAWS

A real script example

When a website used on Wikipedia changes its URL, the links on Wikipedia become outdated, and possible also dead links if the website doesn't redirect from the old URLs to the new URLs. For example, Encyclopedia Britannica (EB) has changed their links, such as moving pages from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/ to http://www.britannica.com/topic/[topic name]/images-videos/*. You can find the list of usages of the old URL on English Wikipedia at w:Special:LinkSearch/http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media. Updating all those links manually will be very time consuming. Thankfully EB has maintained redirects from their old URLs to the new URLs, so this does not need to be fixed immediately.

For a simpler example, English Wikipedia currently contains links to http://britannica.com/EBchecked/ instead of http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/; i.e. a 'www.' subdomain is missing in the URL.

There are currently 14 cases on English Wikipedia: w:Special:LinkSearch/http://britannica.com/EBchecked/

Wikipedia in other language also have this problem. e.g. there is one case on German Wikipedia: w:de:Spezial:Weblinksuche/http://britannica.com/EBchecked/

In order to fix those links, we can use Pywikibot replace.py script. In this demo we will use the '-simulate' argument to avoid writing to the wiki, as there are strict rules about automated editing of English Wikipedia.

First lets list all of the pages which link to http://britannica.com/EBchecked/</nowiki>.

$ pwb.py listpages -lang:en -weblink:"britannica.com/EBchecked/"
   1 Bhatner fort
   2 Mohammad Ishaq Khan
   3 Fringe theories/Noticeboard/Archive 7
   4 El Riego phase
   5 Catalonia/Archive 4
   6 Stephen I of Hungary
   7 Stephen I of Hungary/Archive 1
   8 Väinö Tanner
   9 Tokaji
  10 Transylvania/Archive5
  11 Hungarians in Romania
  12 Transylvania
  13 Uttarakhand
  14 Françoise Giroud
14 page(s) found

Now we check those pages actually have the literal URL in the page; i.e. they are not using a template.

$ pwb.py listpages -lang:en -weblink:"britannica.com/EBchecked/" -grep:"britannica.com\/EBchecked"
   1 Bhatner fort
   2 Mohammad Ishaq Khan
   3 Fringe theories/Noticeboard/Archive 7
   4 El Riego phase
   5 Catalonia/Archive 4
   6 Stephen I of Hungary
   7 Stephen I of Hungary/Archive 1
   8 Väinö Tanner
   9 Tokaji
  10 Transylvania/Archive5
  11 Hungarians in Romania
  12 Transylvania
  13 Uttarakhand
  14 Françoise Giroud
14 page(s) found

Now use replace to add the missing "www."

$ pwb.py replace -lang:en -simulate -weblink:"britannica.com/EBchecked/" -grep:"britannica.com\/EBchecked" "http://britannica.com/EBchecked/" "http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/"
The summary message for the command line replacements will be something like: Bot: Automated text replacement  (-http://britannica.com/EBchecked/ +http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/)
Press Enter to use this automatic message, or enter a description of the
changes your bot will make: 
Logging in to wikipedia:en as <username>
Retrieving 14 pages from wikipedia:en.
Retrieving 14 pages from wikipedia:en.


>>> Stephen I of Hungary <<<
@@ -47 +47 @@
- Stephen's birth date is uncertain because it was not recorded in contemporaneous documents.{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}} Hungarian and Polish chronicles written centuries later give three different years: 967, 969 and 975.{{sfn|Kristó|2001|p=15}} The unanimous testimony of his three late 11th-century or early 12th-century [[hagiographies]] and other Hungarian sources, which state that Stephen was "still an adolescent" in 997,<ref>''Hartvic, Life of King Stephen of Hungary'' (ch. 5), p. 381.</ref> substantiate the reliability of the later year (975).{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}}{{sfn|Kristó|2001|p=15}} Stephen's ''[[Life of Saint Stephen, King of Hungary (Vita minor)|Lesser Legend]]'' adds that he was born in [[Esztergom]],{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}}{{sfn|Kristó|2001|p=15}}<ref name=Britannica>{{cite encyclopedia|title=Stephen I|url=http://britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565415/Stephen-I|encyclopedia=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.|year=2008|accessdate=2008-07-29}}</ref> which implies that he was born after 972 because his father, [[Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians]], chose Esztergom as royal residence around that year.{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}} Géza promoted the spread of Christianity among his subjects by force, but never ceased worshipping pagan gods.{{sfn|Kontler|1999|p=51}}{{sfn|Berend|Laszlovszky|Szakács|2007|p=331}} Both his son's ''[[Life of Saint Stephen, King of Hungary (Vita maior)|Greater Legend]]'' and the nearly contemporaneous [[Thietmar of Merseburg]] described Géza as a cruel monarch, suggesting that he was a despot who mercilessly consolidated his authority over the rebellious Hungarian lords.{{sfn|Berend|Laszlovszky|Szakács|2007|p=331}}{{sfn|Bakay|1999|p=547}}
+ Stephen's birth date is uncertain because it was not recorded in contemporaneous documents.{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}} Hungarian and Polish chronicles written centuries later give three different years: 967, 969 and 975.{{sfn|Kristó|2001|p=15}} The unanimous testimony of his three late 11th-century or early 12th-century [[hagiographies]] and other Hungarian sources, which state that Stephen was "still an adolescent" in 997,<ref>''Hartvic, Life of King Stephen of Hungary'' (ch. 5), p. 381.</ref> substantiate the reliability of the later year (975).{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}}{{sfn|Kristó|2001|p=15}} Stephen's ''[[Life of Saint Stephen, King of Hungary (Vita minor)|Lesser Legend]]'' adds that he was born in [[Esztergom]],{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}}{{sfn|Kristó|2001|p=15}}<ref name=Britannica>{{cite encyclopedia|title=Stephen I|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/565415/Stephen-I|encyclopedia=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]|publisher=Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.|year=2008|accessdate=2008-07-29}}</ref> which implies that he was born after 972 because his father, [[Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians]], chose Esztergom as royal residence around that year.{{sfn|Györffy|1994|p=64}} Géza promoted the spread of Christianity among his subjects by force, but never ceased worshipping pagan gods.{{sfn|Kontler|1999|p=51}}{{sfn|Berend|Laszlovszky|Szakács|2007|p=331}} Both his son's ''[[Life of Saint Stephen, King of Hungary (Vita maior)|Greater Legend]]'' and the nearly contemporaneous [[Thietmar of Merseburg]] described Géza as a cruel monarch, suggesting that he was a despot who mercilessly consolidated his authority over the rebellious Hungarian lords.{{sfn|Berend|Laszlovszky|Szakács|2007|p=331}}{{sfn|Bakay|1999|p=547}}

Do you want to accept these changes? ([y]es, [N]o, [e]dit, open in [b]rowser, [a]ll, [q]uit): N

...

In PAWS, and any terminal that supports color, the diff of changes will show the added "www." in green text color, making it easier to find the proposed changes.

Inside Pywikibot

Attenzione Attenzione: Don't write passwords in files of server, the files are public!

Next we will use the PAWS Python session.

  1. Go to your PAWS home,
  2. click 'New' on the right hand side, and
  3. select 'Python 3'.

This will open a new window.

In the text box, enter the following and in the Cell menu select 'Run' (or pressing shift+enter to run).

import pywikibot

A new text box will appear below. Run the following to create an APISite object connected to https://test.wikipedia.org/:

site = pywikibot.Site('test', 'wikipedia')

Describe "site" by entering it into the new text box and selecting "Run".

site

It should show

 Out[3]: APISite("test", "wikipedia")

Create a page object:

page = pywikibot.Page(site, 'test')

Check it exists by running:

page.exists()

It should output

 VERBOSE:pywiki:Found 1 wikipedia:test processes running, including this one.
 Out[5]: True

Show the text on the page:

page.text

Change the page text in the object:

page.text = 'Hello world'

Save the page to the wiki:

page.save()

The response should be:

  Page [[Test]] saved
  INFO:pywiki:Page [[Test]] saved

The interactive Python 3 notebook allows many lines to be run together. The above could be put into one text box and Run

import pywikibot

site = pywikibot.Site('test', 'wikipedia')
page = pywikibot.Page(site, 'test')

page.text = 'Hello world!'
page.save()

The log of your interactive Python session can be saved or downloaded for future reference.

Accessing online documentation in PAWS

Pywikibot documentation may be found at https://doc.wikimedia.org/pywikibot/. It is primarily sourced from docstrings, which can be loaded in the interactive Python 3 notebook using the Python built-in function help().

For example, to look at the arguments for the save method above, run either:

help(page.save)

or

help(pywikibot.Page.save)

Editing Pywikibot scripts

The Pywikibot library and scripts are located in /srv/paws, and are read-only. The installed Pywikibot library cannot be modified in PAWS.

Scripts may be modified after copying them into your PAWS home.

For example, to run a modified "checkimages.py":

  1. In the terminal, enter cp /srv/paws/pwb/scripts/checkimages.py ~
  2. In a browser, go to your PAWS home and click on the file checkimages.py.
  3. In the browser, you can edit the file. Edit the code -- for instance, just after the start = time.time() code on line 1775, add a new line 1776 that will print out your name: print("MYNAME's version.")
  4. In the editing interface, use the File menu and click Save to save your modifications.
  5. In the terminal, enter pwb.py ~/checkimages.py -simulate

See also

Se hai bisogno di più aiuto per impostare Pywikibot, visita il canale IRC irc