自動ブロック

From MediaWiki.org
Jump to: navigation, search
This page is a translated version of the page Autoblock and the translation is 37% complete.

Other languages:
English • ‎français • ‎italiano • ‎日本語 • ‎polski • ‎português do Brasil • ‎русский • ‎中文
付随的な損害 (collateral damage) を生じる自動ブロックの例です。 これによると、管理者 Curps が他の複数の利用者 (匿名化されており6桁の番号で識別されます) をブロックしているようです。 正確には、Curps は1人の利用者をブロックしただけであり、他のブロックは、ブロックされた利用者と関連する IP アドレスを使用したため生じた自動ブロック機能による「付随的な損害」です。

自動ブロック (autoblock) は、MediaWiki ソフトウェアにより行われる IP アドレスに対する自動的なブロックです。 自動ブロックは、ブロックされた利用者が最近使用した IP アドレスからウィキを編集しようと試みた際に、その結果として実施されます。

利用者がウィキを編集するたびに、サイトに接続する際に使用した IP アドレスが、そのウィキを支える MediaWiki ソフトウェアによって記録されます。 各利用者が使用した IP アドレスの記録は、非公開で保持されており、MediaWiki ソフトウェアでの利用者調査者(checkuser)のアクセス権を持つ利用者のみがアクセスできます。 ブロックされた利用者が当該サイトの編集を試みた際、編集に使用した IP アドレスが、ブロックされた利用者と同じ設定 (ブロック期間とメール送信のブロックを除く) で「自動ブロック」されるため、匿名や別の利用者名での同じ編集ができなくなります。 別の利用者が、自動ブロックされている IP アドレスの使用を試みると同様に自動ブロックされ、さらにブロックされている間に使用を試みた他の IP アドレスもすべて同様に自動ブロックされます。 前述の IP アドレス群を使用した他の利用者もブロックされるおそれがあります。 In some situations, this system can spiral and many users may be autoblocked even if they did nothing blockworthy. As of September 2017, this does not happen. While logged in users can be affected by autoblocks, autoblocks do NOT propagate from IP addresses to accounts.

自動ブロックされた利用者のブロック解除[edit]

If a user is autoblocked, such as if a named user was unblocked, but their IP address is still autoblocked, an admin can clear the autoblock by:

  • Special:BlockList の一覧の内容を検証し、当該利用者のアカウント名を検索します。 この検索では大文字/小文字が区別されます。
  • 関連付けられている #xxxxx の番号を特定します。 この番号で検索する場合は、「#」を含めるようにしてください。
  • 「ブロック解除」リンクをクリックすることで #xxxxx をブロック解除します

自動ブロックを消去すると、その利用者のアカウント名が一覧には表示されなくなることにご注意ください。

メッセージ[edit]

記録のメッセージ[edit]

Sometimes the term "自動ブロック無効" will show up in a block message. This means that when the user was blocked, that only their username was blocked, but other users on the same IP address are still free to edit.

The default setting for a block is to have Autoblock enabled, but it generally does not say this explicitly in a block message. To disable the default autoblocking of an account, admins must manually uncheck the box that says "この利用者が最後に使用したIPアドレスと、ブロック後に編集を試みた際のIPアドレスを自動的にブロック".

主な仕組み[edit]

利用者名 Bad article creation bot としてウィキを荒らした直後の Gmaxwell
彼の荒らしが原因で、ウィキカンファレンス NYC 2009 の間ずっと harej が誤って自動ブロックされました。 A wiki admin Kirill Lokshin looks on with disapproval.

When an autoblock occurs, users may be autoblocked as the result of a block on another user, who was probably using the same ISP. So a different user may end up blocked, even though they have personally done nothing wrong. This is referred to as "collateral damage". 例:

  1. User:Susan, an administrator, blocks User:Bort for 24 hours. Unknown to Susan, Bort uses AOL to edit the wiki, and an autoblock was enabled at the time of the block.
  2. User:Steven, who also uses AOL from home, and is currently assigned the IP address last used by Bort, signs on to the wiki
  3. The MediaWiki software, detecting the use of the IP address by Steven, and assuming it to be Bort, issues a 24 hour block on Steven, in admin Susan's name. Susan is not notified of the block. Steven is NOT actually blocked, but he is still prevented from editing due to the autoblock on his newly assigned IP address.
  4. Steven receives a "You have been blocked" message, doesn't understand what an autoblock is, and angrily demands to know why admin Susan has blocked him.
  5. Steven tries to login from his work computer (which does not use AOL).
  6. The MediaWiki software senses that Steven is trying to get around his block, and autoblocks his work IP address as well. Again, Steven is not blocked so this doesn't happen.
  7. One of Steven's co-workers, who happens to use the same work IP address, tries to access the wiki.
  8. The MediaWiki software senses the co-worker, and autoblocks them too, as well as any future IP addresses they may use. Doesn't happen due to reasons explained above.
  9. And so on...

It is important for users to understand that administrators do not set autoblocks; once they have blocked a user with autoblocking enabled, autoblocks are set by the MediaWiki software. Autoblocks do not appear in administrators' block logs, and the administrators are not notified of them. This is a necessary consequence of keeping logged-in users' IP addresses private. So while the IP address responsible for each edit is recorded by the MediaWiki software, this cannot be accessed, even by administrators and even when the user is blocked.

追跡[edit]

MediaWiki バージョン: 1.29

If $wgCookieSetOnAutoblock is enabled a cookie ({$wgCookiePrefix}BlockID) will be set on an autoblocked user's browser. This means that the user will still be blocked even after logging out and moving to a new IP address.

When the cookie is set, and a user tries to edit a page, MediaWiki will load the original block specified in the cookie and prevent the user from making the edit. This does not, however, create a new autoblock for the new IP address. That only happens if the user logs into the original blocked account.

This form of tracking is dependent on the user's browser retaining the cookie, and so will not work for all blocked users in all situations. The feature is intended to provide a small extra level of protection against blocks being circumvented.

自動ブロックの無効化[edit]

When a block is issued, autoblocking is usually turned on by default, except for common dynamic IP ranges, such as those used by AOL. A list of such automatically exempt IP ranges can be found at MediaWiki:Autoblock whitelist.

Administrators can disable autoblocking at the time of blocking a user, by unchecking the checkbox. Once an "enabled" block is placed, it can also be fixed by modifying the user's block, but this should not be done unless absolutely necessary.

自動ブロックのリセット[edit]

There is an internal autoblock expiry time variable, $wgAutoblockExpiry, which is set to 24 hours, meaning that autoblocks only last for 24 hours. However, in the case of dynamic IP address pools (such as those used by AOL), this may affect hundreds of users before the block expires. So in the case of an indefinite block, autoblocks may continue to be set by the software, weeks or months after the initial block has been set. Older indefinite blocks, dating from before the autoblock exemption whitelist and the option to disable when blocking, may also trigger autoblocks.

Ipblocklist[edit]

When IP addresses are autoblocked, they appear in Special:Ipblocklist (but not in the admin's block log) with a special mask that prevents the IP address from being seen. Autoblocks register on Special:Ipblocklist, Special:AutoblockList and in the banner available to the blocked user, with the name of the admin that set the original block. However, the admin is not notified that an autoblock has been placed. Diligent administrators who lift a block early may wish to check the Ipblocklist in order to check for any autoblocks that need to be cleared.

ヒント[edit]

  • It is helpful for all involved, especially AOL users, who are often chronically autoblocked by collateral damage, to remain patient and remember that it is the software that is responsible for the autoblock, not the administrator who is unfortunate enough to have his or her name appear on the block log.
  • Equally important is for admins to check Special:Ipblocklist and Special:AutoblockList regularly, and unblock all autoblocks from a particular user if more than two autoblocks are set in rapid succession.
  • If more than two IP addresses are autoblocked within seconds/minutes of each other, it is a good indication that it is a dynamic IP address pool and the blocks are collateral damage.