Manual:Configurar envios de ficheiro

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This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Configuring file uploads and the translation is 33% complete.
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MediaWiki suporta o envio e integração de ficheiros mediateca. Esta página descreve os aspetos técnicos desta funcionalidade, consulte Manual:Administração de Imagem e Ajuda:Imagens para obter informação geral de utilização.

A partir do MediaWiki versão 1.1, os envios estão inicialmente desativados por predefinição, devido a motivos de segurança. Os envios podem ser ativados por meio de uma definição, embora seja recomendável que verifique primeiro certos pré-requisitos.

Pré-requisitos

Certifique-se que os envios estão ativados no PHP

O seguinte precisa de ser definido em php.ini :

file_uploads = On

Se isto não estiver definido, os scripts de PHP não poderão utilizar as funções de envio, e os envios do MediaWiki não serão ativados.

If the open_basedir directive is set, it must include both the destination upload folder in your MediaWiki installation ("{$IP}/images") and the 'upload_tmp_dir' folder (default system folder if not set). The addition of the 'upload_tmp_dir' can avoid messages like "Could not find file "/var/tmp/php31aWnF" (where in this example the 'upload_tmp_dir' is '/var/tmp'). Read more about PHP file uploads at File upload basics and in particular move_uploaded_file().

The formal value for the variable is a boolean expression. PHP treats each string not recognized as a False value as true, hence the often used "on" value yields the same result.

Verificar para utilizadores do Windows e IIS

Set %SystemRoot%\TEMP to have permissions for the Internet Guest Account (IUSR_MachineName, or IUSR for IIS 7+): Read, write and execute;

Verificar segurança da diretoria

The upload directory needs to be configured so that it is not possible for an end user to upload and execute other scripts, which could then exploit access to your web directory and damage your wiki or web site.

Defina a pasta /images (ou a pasta /uploads em versões anteriores) para ter a permissão "755":

  • Utilizador pode ler, escrever e executar;
  • Grupo pode ler e executar;
  • Mundo pode ler e executar.
Apenas as pastas devem ter permissões executáveis. Os ficheiros não devem ter a permissão executável. In Linux, to remove executable permissions from all files in a folder, and to add executable permissions to the folder and all sub folders: chmod -x+X uploads_folder -R

If using safe_mode, make sure the directory is owned by the user used for running the php script (that is, the apache user).

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data images/

If using CentOS 6 or Mageia the owner:group in the chown command should be "apache:apache" instead of "www-data:www-data".

If using SELinux , make sure to adjust the ACLs accordingly (see there).

  • Restrict directory listing on images folder

If you don't want a public user to list your images folder, an option is to set this up in your apache configuration:

        <Directory /var/www/wiki/images>
                Options -Indexes
        </Directory>

verificar ficheiro .htaccess

A diretoria images na pasta de instalação do MediaWiki contém um ficheiro .htaccess com algumas configurações. The goal of this file is to make the upload folder more secure, and if you place your upload directory somewhere else, it's recommended to also copy the .htaccess file to the new location, or apply that configuration on the server directly. However, some of those configurations may cause conflicts or errors, depending on how the server is configured.

Algumas a ter em conta.

  • If the server doesn't allow to set or override directives in .htaccess files, accessing any file under that folder may result in a generic "HTTP 500 error". If that's the case, you should comment-out the lines, and apply those directives directly on the server configuration files. The directives that are most likely causing the problems are AddType —which prevents HTML and PHP files from being served as HTML—, and php_admin_flag —which would prevent PHP files from being parsed and executed on the server as such.

Ativar / Desativar os envios

MediaWiki version:
1.5

Na versão 1.5 e superior do MediaWiki. o atributo a ser definido reside em "LocalSettings.php " e $wgEnableUploads é definido como se segue:

$wgEnableUploads = true; # Ativar envios

Para desativar a função de envio, defina o atributo para false:

$wgEnableUploads = false; # Destivar envios

Utilizar um repositório central

InstantCommons is a feature, enabled with a configuration change, which gives you immediate access to the millions of free (freely licensed) files in Wikimedia Commons.

Permissões de Envio

Por predefinição, todos os utilizadores registados podem enviar ficheiros. Para restringir isto, tem de alterar $wgGroupPermissions :

  • Para evitar que os utilizadores normais enviem ficheiros:
    $wgGroupPermissions['user']['upload'] = false;
  • Para criar um grupo especial chamado de "uploadaccess" (acesso de envio), e permitir que os membros desse grupo enviem ficheiros:
    $wgGroupPermissions['uploadaccess']['upload'] = true;
  • Para permitir que os utilizadores "auto confirmados" (não principiantes) enviem ficheiros:
    $wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['upload'] = true;

The right to replace existing files is handled by an extra permission, called reupload:

  • To prevent normal users from overriding existing files:
    $wgGroupPermissions['user']['reupload'] = false;
  • To allow "autoconfirmed" (non-newbie) users to replace existing files:
    $wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['reupload'] = true;

If a ForeignFileRepo is set, the right to replace those files locally is handled by an special permission, called reupload-shared:

  • To prevent normal users from overriding filerepo files locally:
    $wgGroupPermissions['user']['reupload-shared'] = false;
  • To allow "autoconfirmed" (non-newbie) users to replace filerepo files locally:
    $wgGroupPermissions['autoconfirmed']['reupload-shared'] = true;

See Manual:User rights for details on user rights, and Manual:Preventing access for more information about restricting access.

Configurar tipos de ficheiro

You can add $wgFileExtensions in LocalSettings.php to allow uploads of other desired file types. For example, you can change the $wgFileExtensions line to look something like

$wgFileExtensions = array( 'png', 'gif', 'jpg', 'jpeg', 'doc',
    'xls', 'mpp', 'pdf', 'ppt', 'tiff', 'bmp', 'docx', 'xlsx',
    'pptx', 'ps', 'odt', 'ods', 'odp', 'odg'
);

ou

$wgFileExtensions = array_merge( $wgFileExtensions,
    array( 'doc', 'xls', 'mpp', 'pdf', 'ppt', 'xlsx', 'jpg', 
        'tiff', 'odt', 'odg', 'ods', 'odp'
    )
);

ou

# Add new types to the existing list from DefaultSettings.php
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'docx';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'xls';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'pdf';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'mpp';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'odt';
$wgFileExtensions[] = 'ods';

However, certain file extensions are blacklisted ($wgFileBlacklist ) and cannot be uploaded even if added to $wgFileExtensions. To upload files with blacklisted extensions, you must modify the blacklist. For instance, to allow users to upload executables:

$wgFileExtensions[] = 'exe';
$wgFileBlacklist = array_diff( $wgFileBlacklist, array ('exe') );

In addition, $wgMimeTypeBlacklist prevents certain file types based on MIME type; .zip files, for example, are prohibited based on MIME type (MediaWiki version 1.14 up to 1.17).

Também pode definir $wgStrictFileExtensions

$wgStrictFileExtensions = false;

to allow most types of file to be uploaded. However, blacklisted filetypes and MIME types will still not be permitted.

Aviso Aviso: Setting $wgStrictFileExtensions to false, or altering $wgFileBlacklist could result in either you or your users being exposed to security risks.

If you are getting the error "The file is corrupt or has an incorrect extension", make sure mime type detection is working properly.

If you decide to allow any kind of file, make sure your mime detection is working and think about enabling virus scans for uploads .

To enable zip extension (tested in MediaWiki v1.19.23) the following will be necessary in the LocalSettings.php file:

$wgFileExtensions[] = 'zip';
// $wgTrustedMediaFormats[] = 'ARCHIVE';
$wgTrustedMediaFormats[] = 'application/zip';

Iniciar sessão

Por predefinição, os envios anónimos não são permitidos. Deve registar-se e iniciar a sessão antes de a hiperligação de "enviar o ficheiro" apareça na caixa de ferramentas.

Criação de Miniaturas

Para informação sobre renderizar/criar miniaturas automaticamente das imagens, consulte Image thumbnailing . For problems with thumbnailing, see Image Thumbnails not working and/or appearing.

MediaWiki version:
1.11

If the file is not visual (like an Image or Video) a fileicon is used instead. These are generated by the iconThumb() function in the File class in the FileRepo group. Icons stored in "$wgStyleDirectory/common/images/icons/" in a "fileicon-$extension.png"-format.

Definir o número máximo para os envios de ficheiro

Browsers tell the server the size of the file to be uploaded before it actually sends the file.

If the upload is too big, it is rejected by the target (server) and the upload fails providing multiple errors depending at which layer the limit was imposed:

  • If it's a server limit (nginx, Apache) on the maximum amount of transmitted data, it may simply fail with a HTTP 500 error or HTTP 413 – Request entity too large.
  • If the limit it's at the PHP level, if post_max_size is hit, you may get a generic HTTP 500 error (or simply a blank page) otherwise, MediaWiki should give a more meaningful error message.
post_max_size e upload_max_filesize no ficheiro php.ini

Por predefinição, o código de configuração em php.ini limita o tamanho dos ficheiros a enviar para 2 MB (e o tamanho máximo de um operação posterior de 8 MB). Para permitir o envio de ficheiros grandes, edite estes parâmetros no ficheiro php.ini.

Isto poderá requerer acesso de root para o servidor. (se estiver num anfitrião partilhado, contacte o seu administrado do servidor)

If you are increasing the maximum upload filesize to a value greater than 100MB, you will need to add $wgMaxUploadSize with the new upload filesize value to LocalSettings.php .
Localizar o ficheiro php.ini
Localização típica em que o ficheiro php.ini pode ser encontrado.

A localização do ficheiro php.ini varia de acordo com a distribuição que está a utilizar. (Tente "localizar o ficheiro php.ini" ou "php -i" para encontrar a localização do seu ficheiro de configuração) [1]

It is important to change the php.ini file in the apache2 folder. For example, there may be a core default php.ini at /etc/php5/cli/php.ini as well as one at /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini. If you are using mod_php (most common), the most likely location for the correct php.ini file is in /etc/php5/apache2 or /etc/php/7.0/apache2. For php-fastcgi, edit /etc/php5/cgi/php.ini.

Multiple websites hosted on a server

If you have more than one website hosted on a server and want to change only for MediaWiki, insert into your /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/your_wiki_site.com inside <Virtual Host>:

php_value upload_max_filesize 100M
php_value post_max_size 100M

Both above settings also work in a .htaccess file if your site uses mod_php. If your site uses PHP >= 5.3 and allows it, you can place php.ini directives in .user.ini files instead.

limites do servidor da Web

Your web server may impose further limits on the size of files allowed for upload. For Apache, one of the relevant settings is LimitRequestBody. [2] For Nginx, client_max_body_size is the relevant setting.[3] For Lighttpd, server.max-request-size is what may need modification.[4]

After editing your php.ini or web server configuration, you will need to restart Apache or IIS.

Ubuntu 16.04: sudo service apache2 restart

You may also need to restart php5-fpm after altering your PHP (or ngingx server?) configuration.

(sudo /etc/init.d/php5-fpm restart in Linux, for example.)

uploading too large of files warning

MediaWiki itself issues a warning if you try to upload files larger than what is specified by $wgUploadSizeWarning option. This is independent of the hard limit imposed by PHP.

limites temporários de envio

As alterações temporárias aos limites de envio (por exemplo, quando utilizar múltiplas wikis numa farm) podem ser alteradas adicionando as linhas:

ini_set( 'post_max_size', '50M' );
ini_set( 'upload_max_filesize', '50M' );

ao ficheiro de configuração LocalSettings.php do MediaWiki para cada wiki. Neste exemplo, o limite de PHP está definido em 50 Mb. Note that these settings will not override the maximum settings set above (since the core php.ini and apache2 php.ini files set the absolute maximum). This method sets maximums that are less than the absolute maximum.

IIS7 upload limit
By default, IIS7[5] on Windows 2008 allows only 30MB to be uploaded via a web application. Larger files will return a 404 error after the upload. If you have this problem, you can solve it by increasing the maximum file size by adding the following code to <system.webServer> in the web.config file:
<security>
  <requestFiltering>
    <requestLimits maxAllowedContentLength="50000000" />
  </requestFiltering>
</security>

With the above maxAllowedContentLength, users can upload files that are 50,000,000 bytes (50 MB) in size. This setting will work immediately without restarting IIS services. The web.config file is located in the root directory of your web site.

To allow uploading files up to 2G:

add the following lines to LocalSettings.php:

$wgUploadSizeWarning = 2147483647;
$wgMaxUploadSize = 2147483647;

Also, modify the following lines in php.ini :

memory_limit = 2048M (this line may not be necessary)
post_max_size = 2048M
upload_max_filesize = 2048M

In the IIS web.config file, override the value of maxRequestLength. For example, the following entry in web.config allows files that are less than or equal to 2 gigabytes (GB) to be uploaded:

<httpRuntime maxRequestLength="2097151" executionTimeout="18000"/>

With IIS 7, you also need to configure it to allow large uploads. This is found by clicking “Request Filtering > Edit Feature Settings” in the IIS section in the middle of the window. Set the ”Maximum allowed content length (Bytes)” field to 2147482624. If you don’t see "Request Filtering" in the IIS section, it needs enabled via Internet Information Services > World Wide Web Services > Security in the "Turn Windows features on or off" area in Control Panel.

If the above tip does not enable large uploads, then open a command prompt and execute this command as well:

%windir%\system32\inetsrv\appcmd set config -section:requestFiltering -requestLimits.maxAllowedContentLength: 2147482624

Permitir Envios JAR Java

By default, MediaWiki will scan all uploads that appear to be ZIP archives and reject any that contain Java .class files. This is a security measure to prevent users uploading a malicious Java applet. For non-public sites only, use the following to disable this check:

$wgAllowJavaUploads = true;

This setting can be used as a work around for allowing mimetypes to be accepted indiscriminately. For example, if you attempt to upload a .doc file created by Word 2007, no matter the text list you provide and mimetype checking you invoke or prohibit, you will receive the message:

The file is a corrupt or otherwise unreadable ZIP file. It cannot be properly checked for security.

.doc files saved by Word 2007 (and possibly later versions) contain a small embedded ZIP archive storing metadata that is not representable in the binary .doc format as used by earlier versions of Word. This embedded ZIP data confuses the Java archive scanner, causing the .doc file to be rejected. Files in the newer .docx file format are valid ZIP archives in their entirety, and can be uploaded successfully without setting $wgAllowJavaUploads .

Enviar diretamente de um URL ("Sideloading")

If you want to allow a user to directly upload files from a URL, instead of from a file on their local computer, set $wgAllowCopyUploads = true.

By default, upload by URL are only possible using the API (or extensions such as UploadWizard ). To make the option usable from Special:Upload, you need to set $wgCopyUploadsFromSpecialUpload to true as well. On the upload form, you will then see an additional field for the URL, below the usual filename field. The URL field is greyed out per default, but can be activated by activating the radiobutton (checkbox) to the left of the field.

In order to use this feature, users must have the user right upload_by_url. This right was granted to sysops by default until MediaWiki 1.20 but it now needs to be granted explicitly. To allow this to normal users, set

 $wgGroupPermissions['user']['upload_by_url'] = true;

Keep in mind that allowing uploads directly from an arbitrary location on the web makes it easier to upload random, unwanted material, and it might be misunderstood as an invitation to upload anything that people might come across on the web.

PHP's cURL support must be enabled to support this feature. Configure your PHP when installing using the --with-curl option.
If your server is accessing internet through a proxy then $wgHTTPProxy needs to be set accordingly. Either you supply it directly or, if your server supplies the environment variable "http_proxy" see your phpinfo(), then you could use the following code in your LocalSettings.php:
/*
 * Proxy to use for CURL requests.
 */
if ( isset( $_ENV['http_proxy'] )) $wgHTTPProxy = $_ENV['http_proxy'];

Envio em série

A number of tools are available for uploading multiple files in one go rather than each file separately:


Extensão Descrição Release status Requisitos
Extension:UploadWizard Used on Wikimedia Commons Estável MediaWiki 1.23+
Extension:MsUpload Allows a user to upload multiple files including by dragging & dropping files. Estável 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22
Extension:SimpleBatchUpload Basic, no-frills uploading of multiple files to MediaWiki Estável 1.26+
Extension:MultiUpload Not currently maintained Broken 1.19+
Commonist (external link to Wikimedia Commons) Requires file upload via api.php.
importImages.php "Place the files on the server in a readable location and execute the maintenance/importImages.php script from the command line."[6]
User:Nichalp/Upload script
Commons:File upload service/Script Deprecated
User:File Upload Bot (Kernigh)

Diretoria de envios

Whenever an image is uploaded, several things are created:

  1. An article in the file namespace with the name of the file, e.g. File:MyPicture.png. This page is stored and can be edited like any other page.
  2. The file itself is stored into the folder on the file system, which is configured in $wgUploadDirectory or into one if its subfolders (see below).
  3. If thumbnailing is available, thumbnailed versions of the file will be created when necessary (such as for the usage on the file description page. These are stored in the thumb directory of the image directory, in a separate directory for each main file.

If $wgHashedUploadDirectory is enabled (by default), MediaWiki creates several subdirectories in the images directory.

If $wgHashedUploadDirectory is set to true, uploaded files will be distributed into sub-directories of $wgUploadDirectory based on the first two characters of the md5 hash of the filename. (e.g. $IP/images/a/ab/foo.jpg) Creation of such subdirectories is handled automatically. This is used to avoid having too many files in one folder because some filesystems don't perform well with large numbers of files in one folder.

If you only maintain a small wiki with few uploaded images, you could turn this off by setting $wgHashedUploadDirectory = false, all images are uploaded in $wgUploadDirectory itself. (e.g. $IP/images/foo.jpg)

Multiwiki sites

  • Make sure you've changed the site location in LocalSettings.php from, e.g. /var/lib/mediawiki to wherever your installation is, and created a writeable images directory (most of the rest can be symlinked).

Not doing so will mysteriously break image uploads.

Configuring the upload form

The upload form message provided with the default MediWiki installation (which appears when you click "Upload file" link or go to Special:Upload link) may not go very well for you.

For that case you can edit MediaWiki:Uploadtext contents and provide your own text. If your wiki site is multilanguage don't forget to edit localized versions like MediaWiki:Uploadtext/de.

On the MediaWiki:Licenses page you can customize a drop-down list of licenses for uploads of your site.

Take into account that localized versions like MediaWiki:Licenses/de won't work by default. To enable them you must configure the $wgForceUIMsgAsContentMsg variable.

Edit MediaWiki:Upload-default-description to add an initial text to the "Summary" field of your upload form (for example your wiki site has a universal template for upload summaries and you want everyone to use that template).

Problemas conhecidos no Windows

Running MediaWiki on Windows server has some restrictions in allowed filenames, due to a PHP bug. PHP can't handle filenames with non-ascii characters on it correctly, and MediaWiki will refuse to upload files containing such characters to prevent broken uploads (task T3780), with the message A wiki não aceita nomes de ficheiros com caracteres especiais..

Since MediaWiki 1.31 MediaWiki can handle filenames with non-ascii characters if it's using PHP 7.1 or later.

Known problems with database names having non-alphanumeric characters

If $wgDBname contains non-alphanumeric characters, uploads may fail with errors like Could not create directory "mwstore://local-backend/local-public/<path>".. This is caused by an internal check for valid container name for file backend, but it's constructed using $wgDBname.

Since MediaWiki 1.26, it allows uploads when $wgDBname contains dots.

Consulte também

Referências

  1. Para um exemplo de onde está o ficheiro php.ini, consulte Onde está localizado o ficheiro php.ini?.
  2. core - Apache HTTP Server Version 2.4 - LimitRequestBody Directive, Apache manual
  3. client_max_body_size, Nginx manual
  4. server.max-request-size, Lighthttpd manual
  5. IIS7 is a new revision (version 7.0) of the Internet Information Services that is part of Windows Vista and the next Windows Server version.
  6. http://xpt.sourceforge.net/techdocs/language/wiki/wikimedia/wkm07-MediaWikiImport/index.html#mass_image_upload_zip_