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Warning: no promises of security are made in this guide. It was intended to be run on an offline workstation.
At a minimum, the webserver must access your wiki on demand. There are better and more complex ways of setting it up, but this will suffice. In /etc/httpd/httpd.conf, in the section: IfModule mod_alias.c, add the following line:
Alias /wiki/ /var/wiki
Replace /var/wiki with the directory you've chosen.
Apache will not be configured to use PHP by default, so you may need to do the following.
Edit /etc/httpd/httpd.conf by uncommenting the line: #Include /etc/httpd/mod_php.conf
Edit /etc/httpd/httpd.conf by adding: index.php to the line DirectoryIndex index.html
Edit /etc/httpd/mod_php.conf by adding: .phtml to the line <FilesMatch \.(php|phtml)$>
Make sure Apache is set to run at startup: chmod +x /etc/rc.d/rc.httpd
Point your browser to the directory where MediaWiki was extracted and follow the link to the setup screen. It should be in the form http://[domain]/[directory]/mw-config/index.php. Replace [directory] with the path to your extracted MediaWiki folder. If installing on a local machine, replace [domain] with [localhost]. A locally installed wiki will need the LocalSettings.php modified from [localhost] to [domain] if you will ever be accessing the wiki from that domain. If installed on a remote server, replace [domain] with your server's domain name (eg: www.myserver.com).