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This page is a translated version of a page Help:Templates and the translation is 19% complete.

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PD 참고: 이 문서를 편집하면, CC0에 따라 당신의 기여를 배포하는 데 동의합니다. 자세한 정보는 퍼블릭 도메인 도움말 문서를 보십시오.

여러 문서에 반복하여 입력해야 할 문장이 있는 경우, MediaWiki의 틀 기능이 유용하게 사용될 수 있다. (도움말 namespace의 모든 문서에 포함되어있는 위와 같은 tag가 틀 기능의 좋은 사용예이다.)

틀 생성하기[edit | edit source]

틀(Template) 이름은 틀: 로 시작하며, 다른 보통의 문서를 만드는 것과 같은 방법으로 생성할 수 있다.

The simplest use of templates is as follows. If you create a page called "Template:Welcome" with contents:

Hello! Welcome to the wiki.

you'll have created your first template! If you then insert the code:


in any other page, when that page is viewed the text "Hello! Welcome to the wiki." will appear instead of {{Welcome}}. The template content is "transcluded" into the other page, i.e. it is integrated in the page.

You can then insert {{Welcome}} at any point of any page where you wish to welcome someone. Suppose it is used in 100 pages. If you then change the template contents to:

Hi there! Welcome to this wonderful wiki.

and revisit any of the 100 pages where the template was used, you'll see the new text instead of the original one. In this way, you have changed the content of 100 pages without editing them, because the template is transcluded into these pages.

This is the basic mechanism. There are several additional features of transclusion that enrich this mechanism and make templates very useful.

틀 사용하기[edit | edit source]

틀 역시 하나의 위키 문서이며, 세 가지 방법으로 다른 위키 문서에서 사용될 수 있다.

  • {{Name}} — as described above, this link will be dynamically replaced by the current content of [[Template:Name]] at the time the page with the template link is loaded. The link will remain unchanged in the page's source.
  • {{subst:이름}}은 이 코드를 포함하고 있는 문서에, "[[틀:이름]]" 문서의 내용을 그 위치에 포함시켜서 저장한다. (즉, 문서를 작성하던 시점의 "[[틀:이름]]" 문서의 내용을 포함하게 된다.)
  • {{safesubst:Name}} — this was introduced to allow for substitution that doesn't break transclusion, see w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{msgnw:이름}}{{이름}}와 동일하지만, <nowiki>를 사용한 것 처럼 위키 문서 문법을 처리하지 않고 문서를 포함시킨다.

In fact, an ordinary wiki page can also be used as a template, simply by specifying the namespace it resides in, so:

  • {{Template:Pagename}} includes [[Template:Pagename]]
  • {{Foo:Pagename}} includes [[Foo:Pagename]]
  • {{:Pagename}} includes [[Pagename]]
    • {{subst::Pagename}} replaces itself with the contents of [[Pagename]]

If no such namespace exists, the full title is assumed to be a template:

  • {{Foo:Bar}} includes [[Template:Foo:Bar]]

틀에서 매개변수 사용하기[edit | edit source]

To enrich the mechanism of transclusion, MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to a template when it is transcluded. Parameters allow the template to produce different contents or have different behaviors.

Suppose you wish to insert a little thank you note in the talk page of other users, such as:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for all your effort.
hugs, Me

The thank you note will have a reason (in this case, "all your effort") and a signature ("Me"). Your objective is that any user is able to thank any other user, for any reason whatsoever.

So that the note will look similar everywhere it is used, you can define a template called Template:Thankyou, for example. Although the note should look similar whenever a user thanks another user, its specific contents (i.e. the reason and the signature) will be different. For that reason, you should pass them as parameters. If we ignore the remaining elements to format the box and place the image, the core content of the template will be this:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}

Notice the use of {{{1}}} and {{{2}}}. This is the way to identify, within templates, the parameters that will be passed in when the template is used. Note that, within the template, each parameter is surrounded by three braces: {{{ }}}. This is different from normal template name usage.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a "pipe" character (|). MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to the template in three ways: Anonymously, Numbered, and Named.

Anonymous parameters[edit | edit source]

To pass in anonymous parameters, list the values of those parameters sequentially:

{{Thankyou|all your effort|Me}}

In this case, the {{Thankyou}} template receives parameters {{{1}}}=all your effort and {{{2}}}=Me, producing:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for all your effort.
hugs, Me

The order in which anonymous parameters are passed in is crucial to its behavior. Reversing the order of the parameters, like so:

{{Thankyou|Me|all your effort}}

would produce this result:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for Me.
hugs, all your effort

Note: identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc) works only with anonymous parameters. If your page identifies any parameter by number or name, as shown below, this method will no longer be available to the template which receives them.

틀에 이름이 없는 매개변수 사용하기[edit | edit source]

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Me|1=your friendship}}

This time, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{1}}}=your friendship and {{{2}}}=Me, though they have been supplied in inverse order, and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for your friendship.
hugs, Me

틀에 이름이 지정된 매개변수 사용하기[edit | edit source]

The third way of passing parameters is by name, instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason}}}.
hugs, {{{signature}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for being who you are.
hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

Default values[edit | edit source]

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide them, in this way:


in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}

Since no parameters were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no parameter {{{reason}}} is provided, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any parameter, results in the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for everything.
hugs, Me

틀의 포함 영역 제어하기[edit | edit source]

<noinclude><includeonly> 를 사용하면 틀의 포함 영역을 제어할 수 있다.

<noinclude></noinclude> 의 사이에 있는 내용은 그 문서를 직접 접근할 때만 화면에 표시되며, 다른 문서에 포함되어 나타나지는 않는다. 유용하게 사용될 수 있는 경우는 다음과 같다.

  • 분류를 작성할 때
  • 다른 언어로 작성된 틀에 대한 연결들을 작성할 때
  • 틀 사용 방법과 같은 내용

반대의 역할을 하는 것이 <includeonly>이다. <includeonly></includeonly> 사이의 문자열은 문서가 다른 문서에 포함될 때에만 화면에 나타난다. 간단한 사용예가 틀을 사용하는 모든 문서들은 category에 포함시키면서, 틀은 그 분류에 포함시키지 않는 경우이다.

  • Categorizing pages which include the template. Note: when changing the categories applied by a template in this fashion, the categorization of the pages which include that template may not be updated until some time later: this is handled by the job queue. To force the re-categorization of a particular page, open that page for editing and save it without changes.
  • Ensuring that the template's code is not executed when viewing the template page itself. Typically this is because it expects parameters, and its execution without parameters has an undesired result.

Everything outside <noinclude> and <includeonly> tags is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page.

틀 정리하기[edit | edit source]

틀이 효과적으로 사용되기 위해서는 사용자들이 틀을 쉽게 찾아서 사용할 수 있도록 해야한다. 가장 간단한 방법은 틀 문서에 사용 예제를 입력해 두는 것이다.

To find them, users can:

  1. Click Special pages > All pages
  2. In the Namespace: list, choose Template and click Go.

To give usage information, include an example like this one on the template page:

== Usage ==
Welcome users:
{{Thankyou|reason=your reason|signature=your signature}}

그러면, 사용자는 간단히 예제를 복사해서 사용할 수 있게 된다.

Copying from one wiki to another[edit | edit source]

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

MediaWiki code[edit | edit source]

If you have import rights (Specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Check the box "Include templates".
    • Uncheck the box "Include only the current revision, not the full history".
    • Click "Export".
  2. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates.

Extensions[edit | edit source]

An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page ParserFunctions and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

CSS and JavaScript code[edit | edit source]

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy them to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  1. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

같이 보기[edit | edit source]