Skriftspråk

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Den här sidan ger grundläggande information om stöd för diverse aspekter av skriftsystem; språk skrivna i olika skriftspråk; skrivriktning; typsnittsrendering och inmatning.

Flertalet skriftspråk eller dialekter

Många språk skrivs på flera skriftspråk. Det är oftast möjligt men saknar stöd i programvaran, och det är ibland svårt om inte omöjligt att implementera. Vissa språk har en SpråkVäxlare som lägger till stöd för flera skriftsystem.

Some languages have very similar dialects that are written in the same script(s) and can—on a technical level—be treated in the same way as different scripts.

LanguageConverter

For documentation on how to use LanguageConverter, see Writing systems/Syntax

LanguageConverter (LC) is a system based on language variants that automatically converts the content of a page into a different variant. A variant is mostly the same language in a different script. To use the LanguageConverter, go to your Internationalisation preferences. If you are on a wiki that supports conversion, you'll see an extra option for choosing the script.

Phab:T21044 -- detta behöver dokumenteras mer!

It is implemented for the following languages (as of March 2017; see languagesWithVariants for the latest list):

  • Crimean Tatar (crh): Latin (crh-latn), Cyrillic (crh-cyrl)
  • English (en): Normal (en), Pig Latin (en-x-piglatin) (for testing, only when $wgUsePigLatinVariant is enabled)
  • Gan (gan): Simplified (gan-hans), Traditional (gan-hant)
  • Inuktitut (iu): Latin (ike-latn), Syllabics (ike-cans) [1.18+]
  • Kazakh (kk): Cyrillic (kk-cyrl), Latin (kk-latn), Arabic (kk-arab)
  • Kurdish (ku): Latin (ku-latn), Arabic (ku-arab) [[[phabricator:rSVN23067|1.11]]+]
  • Tachelhit (shi): Tifinagh (shi-tfng), Latin (shi-latn) [1.19+]
  • Serbian (sr): Cyrillic (sr-ec), Latin (sr-el)
  • Tajik (tg): Cyrillic (tg-cyrl), Latin (tg-latn)
  • Uzbek (uz): Cyrillic (uz-cyrl), Latin (uz-latin) [1.20+]
  • Chinese (zh):
    • Simplified Script (zh-hans): China (zh-cn), Singapore (zh-sg), Malaysia (zh-my)
    • Traditional Script (zh-hant): Taiwan (zh-tw), Hong Kong (zh-hk),[1] Macau (zh-mo)

Och det behövs för många fler språk!

Språkkoder för skriftspråk borde följa ISO 15924-standard.

A current limitation of this system is that it may be particularly bad at dealing with multiple writing systems based on the same underlying script. Chinese Wikipedians occasionally use => (unidirectional) for failing cases. As LC always tries to eat up the largest chunks of words using strtr in PHP, -{}- (breaking up words) can be often useful too.

Supporting configuration

The WPULS/WPUVS functions in zhwp's sitelib allows for easy variant selection in userscript UIs. This can help script writers produce a variant-aware interface for users. For other places unreachable by LC, {{int:Conversionname}} can be used to fetch the current UI language/variant.

The PreviewWithVariant gadget allows Wikipedians to check conversion results in the editor preview. You can configure it for your own wiki.

"Foreign language marker" templates like {{lang}} should add "disable conversion" markers -{ text }- around the quoted foreign text to avoid mis-conversion. On Hans/Hant wikipedias this becomes a concern for Japanese Kanji and Vietnamese Han Nom, while on wikipedias with Latin text marked for conversion this concern should be immediate.

The WikitextLC module allows for easily inserting LC commands to Lua output. Module:地区用词 allows for an adaptive output of the form "foo, known in PLACE and PLACE as bar, and PLACE as baz".

Automated title redirection on URLs may cause apparent inconvenience for interfaces without this feature. See T49725 for the Lua task and T160952 for the section-anchor task.

Se även

Directionality

Most writing systems operate as characters written left-to-right (LTR), with lines stacked from top-to-bottom (TtB).

A few common scripts (Arabic and Hebrew in particular) write characters right-to-left (RTL) -- see directionality support for more details on how we handle right-to-left and mixed bidirectional text with HTML output and CSS styles.

Note that an individual language can be used with scripts that have different directionalities, such as Kazakh and Kurdish which support Latin and Arabic variants.

Note also that the World Wide Web Consortium is working on developing more directionalities for the use in web pages, such as North East Asian top-to-bottom ones, with lines stacked either from left to right or right to left. [1]

Font rendering and input

Many scripts do not have proper fonts easily available to users. This may be because operating systems do not ship these fonts, or users don't know how to install them or don't have enough permissions to do this. The Tillägg:Universell språkväljare extension tries to solve this by embedding the fonts in the wiki itself. Fonts will be served from the server and the user's system would not need to have the fonts installed.

UniversalLanguageSelector adds support to be able to type a certain script, so users do not have to rely on external tools or support on their systems.

Referenser

  1. Taiwan and Hong Kong are two major variants written in the same Traditional script with significant differences in phrase usage due to market separation and influence from local zho languages, so you likely want to at least keep CN, TW, and HK in your list of variants. If you insist on flattening the scope of Chinese variants to a script-based Simp/Trad separation, follow what the reporter did in phab:T149278.