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Refer to project glossary for acronyms and definitions.
Week 1: December 6 - 9

Comparison of WikiQuiz, GIFT, and QTI[edit]

Generally, here are the high level differences in the purpose for each type of format:

WikiQuiz [spec]: text-based microformat to build quizzes. Ease of integration with Wikimedia resources, such as images and videos. Wikiversity does not have the functionality to track and compare student marks, like for a Learning Management System (LMS). Wikiversity primarily used for independent study or training to provide motivation and feedback on discovery and knowledge. The scores don't matter as much as learning something new.

GIFT [spec]: The Moodle learning platform allows building quizzes via a graphical user interface (GUI), or uploading a GIFT format text file. The GUI does not allow for building quizzes collaboratively. The Moodle platform is designed for teachers testing students for scores and the platform has the functionality to rank and compare student scores. More functions for scoring and partial credit on responses.

QTI [spec]: xml-based interoperability specification for IMS platforms, such as Educational Test Service (ETS) which administers the TOEFL and GRE large scale standardized tests. TOEFL and GRE scores are used for the school admission process in the United States. QTI is designed for storing and exchanging items independent of the authoring tool used to create them. It supports deployment of item banks across wide range of learning and assessment delivery systems; LMS lists 23 products on their website that use the QTI standard, including ETS and Canvas.[1][2]

Below are comparisons of key features for each format. I try to give an example for each that captures specific capabilities for each format.


  • WikiQuiz: Wikiversity
  • GIFT: Moodle
  • QTI: 23 learning providers that use QTI standard, including ETS (TOEFL, GRE).[1][2]

Building quizzes collaboratively[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: Yes, multiple users can modify the quiz online.
  • GIFT: Not through the browser interface. Would require modifying the GIFT text file, then re-uploading the modified file.
  • QTI: No. This is the reason why csev developed a GIFT to QTI converter. It is easier for collaborators to modify a GIFT text file.

Platform allows track and compare student marks[edit]

  • Wikiversity (WikiQuiz): No
  • Moodle (GIFT): Yes
  • QTI: Yes

Multiple choice[edit]

All formats allow for:

  • Single correct answer (radio button)
  • Multiple correct responses (checkbox)
  • Feedback

Differences for each format:

  • WikiQuiz: No partial credit. No functionality for multiple correct responses required for full credit.
  • GIFT: Allows partial credit. Functionality to require two or more correct responses for full credit.
  • QTI: Allows partial credit. Functionality to require two or more correct responses for full credit. Can define two or more sets of multiple responses for full credit.


  • WikiQuiz: Radio button for single correct answer. Checkbox for both True and False selection; not sure what is the use case for this functionality.
  • GIFT: Radio button, with feedback optional. One or two feedback optional. If wrong answer selected, first feedback displayed. If right answer selected, second feedback displayed.

Typed short response[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: Can specify multiple correct responses.
  • GIFT: Can specify multiple correct responses and assign partial credit, for example, when an answer is spelled wrong.

Missing word, gives list of options to select[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: No
  • GIFT: Yes
  • QTI: Yes

Fill in the blank[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: Yes. From spec, not clear if it supports multiple correct responses.
  • GIFT: Yes, considered same as "short answer" feature, allows for multiple correct responses. Allows feedback and partial credit.
  • QTI: Yes, allows partial credit. Probably allows feedback, but need to look it up in the specs.

Matching words in two lists[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: No
  • GIFT: Yes, must have at least 3 pairs.
  • QTI: Yes. Also, can shuffle to rearrange order of lists.

Multimedia: images, animations, videos, music, sound effects[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: yes, can embed Wikimedia resources, in questions and in responses. Does not allow for upload of files as responses.
  • GIFT: Optional plugin. Import zip files with media files, or reference resource already hosted on another website. Unclear whether multimedia can be embedded in responses.
  • QTI: Yes. Also, can select hotspots within an image, such as selecting cities on a map. Students can upload drawings and files as responses.

Numerical responses[edit]

All formats allow for tolerance range.

In addition:

  • GIFT: allows for partial credit and feedback
  • QTI: slider interaction. Probably also allows partial credit and feedback (needs to be verified in spec).

Tabular Response[edit]

See examples on WikiQuiz documentation for Tabular response with radio buttons and with checkboxes. Unfortunately, I tried to add quiz question code here, but think it only renders on Wikiversity? Or maybe need a plugin?

  • WikiQuiz: Yes
  • GIFT: No
  • QTI: Yes


  • WikiQuiz: No
  • GIFT: Yes
  • QTI: Yes. Also, there is a rubricBlock object to provide instructions for human graders.


  • WikiQuiz: Unclear. Perhaps standard wiki markup comments would work.
  • GIFT: Yes, //

Feedback after student submits response(s)[edit]

  • WikiQuiz: Yes. All feedback displayed after response(s) submission. There is no way to selectively show feedback based on submitted response(s).
  • GIFT: Yes. For multiple choice, feedback displayed only for the answer the student selected. For short answer, feedback only for input correct answer. For T/F, one or two feedback strings. First for wrong answer, and second for right answer.
  • QTI: Yes

Notable differences[edit]

  • Primary advantage for WikiQuiz is building quizzes collaboratively and ease of adding images, videos, and sounds. GIFT requires a plugin and importing a zip file.
  • WikiQuiz allows for True and False to be correct; seems a bit odd.
  • WikiQuiz shows all feedback after submitting response (, while Moodle selectively shows feedback based on additional criteria.
  • QTI is xml-based and less human-readable than GIFT or WikiQuiz. Quiz authoring is via a GUI; QTI is just standardized format for large range of supported quiz authoring platforms.
  • QTI is designed for standardized exams for large groups. There is a shuffle option to change order of questions or list of words.

WikiQuiz does NOT have the following features, compared to Moodle:

  • Partial credit
  • Multiple responses required for full credit
  • Missing word, gives a list of options to select
  • Matching pairs
  • Essay

Moodle does NOT have the following features, compared to WikiQuiz:


  • Converting from WikiQuiz to GIFT seems doable, since WikiQuiz features mostly supported by GIFT.
  • For conversion of GIFT back to WikiQuiz could be challenging, because WikiQuiz doesn't support all GIFT features.
  • Converting between WikiQuiz/GIFT to and from QTI would be challenging.
  • While I can test GIFT files on Moodle and WikiQuiz on Wikiversity, I don't have access to a QTI platform for test.

Exercise to convert GIFT to QTI[edit]

Just as an example of converting GIFT to QTI. I tried to write a question in GIFT format for this simple example on the IMS QTI website.

Simple QTI example of quiz question with image.

I tried writing this example in the GIFT2QTI converter by Charles Severance.

First of all, the converter doesn't seem to support inserting an image yet, so I only addressed the text part. Here is the GIFT formatted quiz question:

::Unattended Luggage
:: Look at the text in the picture. <insert jpg> What does it say?{ 
=You must stay with your luggage at all times # right; good! ~Do not let someone else look after your luggage. # wrong ~Remember your luggage when you leave. # wrong}

This is the output of the conversion to QTI 1.2.1 (note that the latest version of QTI is 2.2), in xml:

Unattended qti121 output xml.png

Compare this to the source specified for the example:

Unattended original qti.png

As you can see, it's quite different. I will need to upload the converted file to a QTI-supported platform to see if it would be displayed the same.


Objectives for Next Week (Dec 12-16)[edit]

  • Look more into conversion between GIFT and WikiQuiz
  • Load GIFT format data into pyslet data structures, with some basic unit tests
  • Eventually, write out GIFT format as WikiQuiz format