일반 언어 선택기/간소화된 언어 링크

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This page is a translated version of the page Universal Language Selector/Compact Language Links and the translation is 41% complete.
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위키미디어 프로젝트의 편집자들이 더욱 더 많은 언어로 더욱 더 많은 내용을 작성함에 따라 사이드바의 언어 간 링크 목록이 더 길어지고 있습니다. "버락 오바마"나 "태양"과 같은 문서들은 200개 이상의 링크가 있으며 언어를 전환해야 하는 사용자들에게 문제가 되고 있습니다. 이렇게 긴 목록에서 특정한 언어를 찾는 것이 쉬운 일은 아닙니다. 간소화된 언어 링크를 사용하면 사용자가 가장 관심을 두는 언어의 하위 집합을 표시함으로써 초기에 보이는 목록이 짧아지며 사용자는 언어를 쉽게 검색할 수 있게 해주는 별도의 패널에서 나머지 언어에 접근할 수 있습니다.

간소화된 언어 링크 기능은 언어 선택 및 다양한 언어 관련 설정의 접근을 제공하는 일반 언어 선택기 (ULS)에 속해 있습니다. ULS는 2013년부터 모든 위키미디어 위키에 사용되고 있습니다. 간소화된 언어 링크는 OPW 프로젝트에서 개발된 2014년 이후로 별도의 베타 기능으로 이용할 수 있습니다.

작동 방식

간소화된 언어 링크의 스크린샷

간소화된 언어 링크는 환경 설정 → 보이기 → 언어에서 이용 가능한 설정을 사용하여 활성화하고 비활성화할 수 있습니다. 글로벌 환경 설정를 사용하여 모든 위키에서 비활성화 할 수도 있습니다. 이 설정은 현재 여러 단계를 거쳐 모든 위키미디어 위키의 사용자들이 이용할 수 있습니다.

With compact language links a short list of the relevant languages for the user is displayed at first. This selection is based on your previous language selections, your browser settings, your location, and properties of the article you're reading. You can read more about this selection at this FAQ: How do you decide which languages are shown to me in the initial compact list?.

알찬 글 배지도 보여주는 간소화된 링크 언어 화면의 스크린샷

목록 아래에는 문서가 존재하는 언어 수의 지시자가 있습니다. 이것을 클릭하면 나머지 언어를 표시합니다. 어떠한 언어로든 언어 이름으로 검색이 가능하며 맞춤법 실수도 처리합니다. 언어 코드별 검색도 지원합니다.

이 언어 대화 상자 안에 "알찬 글"과 같은 배지를 볼 수도 있습니다.


이 기능이 왜 필요합니까?

수많은 문서에서 언어 간 링크 목록은 매우 깁니다. 항목 10개의 목록에서조차 수많은 사람들이 자신들이 필요로 하는 언어를 찾기 어려워하며 수많은 문서에 100개를 훨씬 초과하는 항목이 있습니다. 자신이 아는 언어를 종종 변경하는 다언어 사용자들은 매번 잠재적으로 긴 목록의 언어 중에 언어를 선택해야 합니다.

Many projects have global or personal customizations for the language list. For example, several Wikipedias asked to put certain languages always at the top, some showed certain languages in a bold font, some had gadgets that prioritize languages according to a user's choice, etc.

Ideas for a global feature of this kind were coming up at least since 2010.

표시할 언어를 어떻게 선택할 수 있나요?

"X개 더 보기" 버튼을 클릭하면 열리는 패널에서 언어를 클릭하시면 됩니다.

언어를 클릭할 때마다 해당 언어는 간소화된 언어 목록에 표시되는 언어 목록에 자동으로 추가됩니다.

원하는 언어를 브라우저 설정에 추가할 수도 있습니다.

간소화된 언어 링크를 베타 기능으로 사용하고 있습니다. 바뀌는 부분이 있나요?

You are not supposed to see any change in the interlanguage area. You will, however, see that Compact Language Links does no longer appear as a feature under the Beta features section. Instead, you will see a new preference setting under Preferences -> Appearance -> Languages, where the checkbox 사용자와 관련 있는 언어로 간소화된 언어 목록을 사용합니다. will be selected.

일찍이 간소화된 언어 링크를 시도해보다가 베타 기능을 꺼두었습니다. 지금 다시 활성화되어 있습니다. 어떻게 끄나요?

간소화된 언어 링크를 활성화하기 위한 "보이기" 아래의 환경 설정의 스크린샷

Please go to Preferences -> Appearance and scroll down to the Languages section. Here you can see a checkbox which says 사용자와 관련 있는 언어로 간소화된 언어 목록을 사용합니다. Deselect this checkbox and save the preferences. (See image)

간소화된 목록에 표시되는 언어 수는 얼만큼입니까?

초기 간소화된 목록에는 7~9개이ㅡ 언어가 일반적으로 표시됩니다. 목록의 크기는 2가지 요인에 따라 달라집니다.

  1. Making enough room for the number of languages people may need. During our research on different language-related projects we have asked participants about the languages they speak and 9 was a limit very rarely exceeded. For example, for 내용 번역 , from 187 responses 85% of the users spoke 4 languages or less. This also seems consistent with research on multilingual editors.
  2. The list had to be short enough to be processed quickly and easily, and communicate the idea that this article is available in other languages. While a person's working memory can be different from human to human, "7 ± 2" is a a common design guideline that suggests we may be providing a short enough list for people to process.

모든 언어가 표시될 때 필요한 언어를 찾는 것이 더 쉽지 않을까요?

우리의 연구에 따르면 간결한 목록을 사용하여 언어를 찾는 데는 긴 단순 목록을 살펴 보는 것보다 더 적은 노력이 필요합니다.

필요한 언어가 초기 목록에 나타나지 않더라도 모든 언어가 있는 긴 목록에서 찾는 것 보다 패널과 검색 상자를 사용하여 더 쉽게 찾아낼 수 있습니다.

언어를 한 차례 클릭한 뒤에는 초기의 짧은 목록에 언제나 최고의 우선순위로 표시됩니다. 사용자들 대부분은 작은 집합의 언어에 반복적으로 접근하며 긴 목록을 사용할 경우 매번 이들을 검색해야 하므로 자주 쓰는 언어를 자동으로 보이게 하면 상당한 시간을 절약할 수 있습니다.

일부 사용자들은 수많은 브라우저에서 볼 수 있는 "문서에서 찾기" 기능을 사용하여 찾고자 하는 언어를 검색하는 게 편할 수 있습니다만 여러 출처에 따르면 이 기능을 알고 있는 웹 사용자의 수는 대략 10-20%에 지나지 않는 것으로 짐작됩니다.[1] In addition, the "Find in page" feature can match similar words in the content, it is not able to correct for typos or consider alternative ways to refer to a language including ISO codes, different scripts, etc. All these capabilities are provided by the search box in the pop-up language selection panel.

초기 간소화된 언어에는 표시를 위해 어떠한 언어를 어떻게 결정하고 있습니까?

The main factor for choosing the languages are the selections of the user. This means that you can select the languages you want the most by simply clicking on them. If you are interested in reading the article in Japanese, once you select it, a link to the Japanese language will be surfaced for easier access next time.

The first time, due to the lack of previous choices by yourself, the language selection is based on other factors. Here's the complete and ordered list of the criteria according to which the languages for the initial compact list are selected:

  1. The languages on which the user clicked in the language selector panel previously.
  2. 웹 브라우저의 언어. 이것은 직접 구성할 수 있습니다.
  3. 바벨 상자에 정의 된 언어입니다.
  4. Geographic information, which is based on the CLDR Territory-Language information. If the information for your country there is not precise, you can contribute to it.
  5. Languages that are used in the page's content with the lang attribute. This attribute is added by various "lang" templates in Wikipedias in many languages, when mentioning the name of a foreign person or place—for example, in the English Wikipedia article Prague, the Czech name of the city ("Praha") is mentioned using the {{lang-cs}} template. Using any HTML element with the lang attribute would work as well (for example, <span lang="cs">Praha</span>).
  6. 알찬 글.
  7. If the methods above didn't find 9 languages that would be relevant for the reader, some major world languages will be shown if articles in them are available: Chinese, English, French, Indonesian, etc.

I have a Babel box on my user page. Why don't I see the languages that I defined in it in the initial compact list?

Please check that you are logged in and that you are using the {{#babel|}} notation on your user page. See the documentation of the 확장기능:바벨 extension. Many wikis have an old template that shows a Babel box, but these templates are implemented differently in each of them and cannot be used by Compact Language Links. The {{#babel|}} notation allows adding a Babel box in a uniform way across all wikis, and has a similar appearance in all of them.

If you have a Babel box using the {{#babel|}} notation on your user page and you still don't see the languages that you specified in it in the initial compact language list, this may be a software bug. Please report it at the project talk page.

Technical notes:

  • The BabelMainCategory variable must be set up for your wiki in the InitialiseSettings.php file. It is already set up for many Wikimedia wikis, but not for all of them.
  • It is possible to wrap the {{#babel|}} notation in a template. This will work for Compact Language Links, too. This was done, for example, in the {{Babel}} template in Russian Wikipedia.

Will the languages that I have in a Babel box on my global user page appear in all the wikis?

Yes, they will appear in every wiki in which you don't have a local user page.

A local user page in a wiki will override your global Babel box.

이 기능은 주요 세계 언어의 우선 순위를 지정하고 작은 언어를 구별합니까?

아뇨, 절대 아닙니다. 이것은 의도도 효과도 아닙니다.

The feature makes the best effort to auto-adapt itself to every user. The languages that are shown in the initial short list with the highest priority are taken from each user's previous choices, browser settings, and location. Some major world languages are shown only as the last fallback with the lowest priority.

In fact, thanks to respecting user preferences and using geolocation, it may make some smaller languages more prominent. Indeed, the clicks on links to all languages, especially the smaller ones, have grown since the feature was made available to anonymous users.

How about languages that are not tied to any territory, such as Esperanto? Won't this feature hurt the traffic to projects in these languages?

Links to all languages are available, but shown in the panel that appears when you click the "More" button, and our research shows that they are easier to find in this panel than in the long list. A user who clicks any language in the panel once, will see this language in the initial list after that.

We are watching the effect of this feature on the clicks on the links and on the traffic to all the projects. As of late 2017, over a year has already passed since the enabling of the feature on some major languages, such as Russian, Spanish and Chinese, and the number of clicks on the links, as well as the traffic to them have not gone down in any language.

Furthermore, in all the languages we have observed that the percent of people who entered the project in that language through interlanguage links from other languages has grown considerably, likely because the links are now easier to find. Here are the metrics from some languages. See also the full statistics for all the languages.

알바니아어 체코어 덴마크어 에스페란토어 라트비아어
2016년 6월 1,0655% 0,3677% 0,6002% 2,9999% 1,1672%
2016년 7월 2,4419% 0,4902% 0,9998% 4,4019% 1,8306%
2016년 8월 3,7557% 0,5454% 0,9916% 4,4966% 2,5281%
2017년 6월 5,4297% 0,8780% 1.5400% 12.9971% 4.3209%
성장률 2016년 6월–2017년 6월 409,5970% 138,7526% 156,5756% 333,2539% 270,1848%

제 브라우저에서 언어 설정을 어떻게 변경하나요?

(Note that browser versions receive updates several times a year, and these instructions may go out of date. If you see that this is done differently in a browser version that is newer than what is indicated here, please feel free to edit this page and update the instructions. )

You can change the language settings of your browser. You might want to consider that this can help browser fingerprinting and can have a negative impact on your privacy.[2] If you want to do so, follow these instructions:

Mozilla Firefox 58

(Three stripes icon) → Options → Languages → Choose → Select a language to add…

Google Chrome 64

(Three dots icon) → Settings → Show advanced settings → Languages → Add languages

Microsoft Internet Explorer 10

  • Windows 7: (Gear icon) → Internet options → General → Languages → Add
  • Windows 8: (Gear icon) → Internet options → General → Languages → Set Language Preferences → Add a language

Microsoft Internet Explorer 11

(Gear icon) → Internet options → General → Languages → Set Language Preferences → Add a language

Microsoft Edge Legacy

This is not done from the browser itself, but in the operating system. Go to the computer's System settings, and then: Time & Language → Region & language → Add a language

Microsoft Edge 79

(Three dots icon) → Settings → Languages → Add Languages

Opera 49

Menu → Settings → Browser → Languages → Preferred languages → Add language

Why are languages grouped by continent?

When the list of languages is long, the list is divided into sections by continent to allow easier visual perception. Otherwise the list would be too long. The division by continent is quite arbitrary; it simply allows a relatively balanced grouping. Division by linguistic family, for example, would be much less balanced, given that some linguistic groups include only one language, while others include several dozens.

Why aren't the languages sorted alphabetically?

Names of languages are written in different scripts. Hence, they cannot be sorted alphabetically.

After the initial grouping by continent, languages are further grouped by writing system, and inside each writing system they are sorted alphabetically.

In any case, design research has shown that users most frequently find the language that they need by using the search box and not by scrolling through the whole list.

Why are names of languages written in the languages themselves and not in the language of the wiki?

Because the primary users of interlanguages are readers who don't necessarily know how the name of their language is written in the language of the wiki.

It is possible to search for the language that you need in your language, or in any other, using the search box at the top of the panel.

Why does the search box and full languages list appear in a separate panel?

We considered that it (a) allowed the user to focus on their languages of interest (the initially visible provides enough room to include the number of languages most of our uses speak), and (b) it allowed us to provide advanced searching capabilities to facilitate the selection. Searching was the most common method for users to find their language during our research, and providing flexible search made it easier to support the cases where the language you are looking for was not in the initial list. You can search for a language based on the name in another languages, making typos or using the ISO codes. This allows searching even if you don't know how is the language's name is written in that language and if cannot type in that language on your keyboard. For example, English speakers are often unable to type in Japanese, but they can search for the Japanese language by typing "japanese" and they don't have to type "日本語".

Although the tool does not show initially all the interlanguage links, the access to them is provided through a "continuation" pattern where it is quite clear how to access to the rest of the languages. Our research confirmed that users were able to figure out how to find their language when it was not present in the initial list (something that they only need to do once at most). We are monitoring the volume of inter-language navigation to identify any potential issues.

이 기능의 성공 지표는 무엇입니까?

The essential success metric is that the number of clicks on interlanguage links doesn't go down. Also, we hope to see that it becomes easier for readers to find languages that are relevant to them.

The developers have started recording the total number of clicks on interlanguage clicks to each language every day in May 2016, before the enabling of the feature to anonymous users started. We are seeing that they started to go up several weeks after the deployment. As of December 2016, the percent of clicks on interlanguage links out of the number of pageviews in each language is higher than it was in May 2016, in Wikipedia in all languages.

The average growth in clicks across all languages from June 2016 until June 2017 is 90%. The average growth in traffic that comes using interlanguages into all the languages in the same period is 85%.

Universal Language Selector/Compact Language Links/metrics/data 문서에서 이 데이터에 관한 더 많은 정보를 볼 수 있습니다.

Is this related to adapting Wikimedia sites to mobile devices?

No. This is a redesign of the interlanguage links only on the desktop website.

The mobile website (MobileFrontend) has its own design for displaying and sorting interlanguage links.

It's possible that the mobile and the desktop design will be brought closer to each other in the future, but there is no concrete plan for this at the moment.

제 위치를 어떻게 결정합니까?

Your IP address is checked on the servers against a database which contains mappings from addresses to approximate locations. The results are stored in a cookie named GeoIP. ULS then reads this information and combines it with a list languages spoken in each country of the world, which is maintained by the CLDR project of the Unicode Consortium. The page wikitech:Geolocation has some more information about this.

It is said that geolocation is used to determine the language selection. How important is this criteria?

Geolocation is not perfect, but that is neither the only nor the primary information source. It is used in addition to more reliable sources: your previous selections and browser languages. In any case, our data relies on CLDR and it is expected to improve over time and we encourage users to ask for improvements on it.

With geolocation, are you not enforcing certain languages, which would be contrary to the mission of the Wikimedia Foundation?

Geolocation is only one of the mechanisms used to guess the user's language. In fact, if suggestions include the languages of a region this can bring more visibility to them than the old list.

Besides, emphasizing these languages makes smaller languages more prominent in the areas where they are spoken.

어떻게 하면 우리나라의 언어에 대한 데이터를 보다 더 정확하게 만들 수 있을까요?

We suggest all people to check the entries for their language in the CLDR Language-Territory database and to update it if needed. All languages, including constructed languages like Esperanto, can be added to it if there is data about the number of speakers in a given country.

저는 대부분의 시간에 VPN을 사용합니다. 지리 위치 정보는 제게 유용하지 않습니다.

지리 위치는 단지 사용자의 언어를 추측하기 위해 쓰이는 매커니즘의 하나일 뿐입니다. 브라우저 설정과 이전에 선택된 언어가 무조건 사용됩니다.

Doesn't automatic personalization of the languages list make Wikimedia sites similar to commercial websites?

Wikimedia sites, like some other massively multilingual commercial sites, have to deal with the scalability in the number of languages it supports. Unlike it is with commercial websites, Wikimedia's purpose is not to optimize the profit by market, but to make it possible for every human being to share in the sum of all knowledge, and this includes access to all languages.

Compact Language Links are designed to make access to all languages not only possible, but easier. Unlike it is done on some commercial websites, no language is ever made inaccessible. Besides, the method for selecting the languages to show in the list is fully and openly documented right here on this page.

왜 간소화된 언어 링크가 제 위키의 대문과 다르게 동작하는 것처럼 보이나요?

Most likely this happens because the display of the interlanguage links on the main page of your wiki is customized using the {{noexternallanglinks}} magic word. This was done in some Wikimedia wikis because there's a main page in all languages so the longest possible list of languages is shown, while the content of the main page itself is usually quite short.

With compact language links this customization shouldn't be needed on the main page, because the list is already compact and the languages are chosen automatically for each user, so the editors community in your wiki should consider removing it.

언어 간 링크에 나열된 언어 중 일부가 왜 회색으로 표시되나요?

회색 링크가 있는 간소화된 언어 링크의 스크린샷. 회색 링크는 내용 번역에 의해 존재하지 않는 문서로 표시됩니다

회색으로 보이는 언어 목록은 베타 기능으로 활성화한 내용 번역 에 의해 표시됩니다. 회색으로 된 언어는 보고 있는 문서가 해당 언어에 존재하지 않으며 회색 링크를 클릭하면 내용 번역을 통해 번역할 수 있다는 것을 의미합니다.

어디에 의견을 제공할 수 있나요?

프로젝트 토론 문서를 사용할 수 있습니다. 버그 및 기능 요청은 파브리케이터 #ULS-CompactLinks 프로젝트에서 추적됩니다.

언어 선택기의 일부 레이블이 제 언어로 번역되어 있지 않습니다. 어디서 번역하면 될까요?

Translatewiki.net 로 이동하여 계정을 개설하고 다음 두 개 그룹의 번역을 완성하세요:

알려진 문제와 기능 요청

파브리케이터의 완전한 목록을 참고하십시오.

See also


  1. Do 90% of People Not Use CTRL+F?, Blog of Metrics, Mozilla
  2. See Fielding, R.; Reschke, J. (June 2014). "Browser Fingerprinting". Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. IETF. p. 85. RFC 7231. Retrieved June 16, 2018.