Universelle Sprachauswahl/kompakte Sprachlinks

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This page is a translated version of the page Universal Language Selector/Compact Language Links and the translation is 37% complete.

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Weil die Autoren der Wikimedia-Projekte immer mehr Inhalte in immer mehr Sprachen erstellen, wächst die Liste der Sprachlinks (interlanguage-Links) in der Seitenleiste. Artikel wie „Barack Obama“ oder „Sonne“ besitzen mehr als 200 Links, und das wird für Nutzer, die die Sprache wechseln wollen, zum Problem. Es fällt nicht leicht, eine spezifische Sprache in diesen langen Listen zu finden. Mit kompakten Sprachlinks wird die anfangs angezeigte Liste kürzer, indem eine Untergruppe von Sprachen gezeigt wird, für die sich der Nutzer wohl am ehesten interessiert. Auf den Rest kann der Benutzer in einer separaten Leiste zugreiffen, die eine einfache Suche nach einer Sprache erlaubt.

Die Funktion für die kompakten Sprachlinks ist Teil der universellen Sprachauswahl (Universal Language Selector, ULS) – die Erweiterung, die die Sprachauswahl und den Zugang zu verschiedenen sprachbezogenen Einstellungen ermöglicht. ULS ist seit 2013 auf allen Wikimedia-Wikis im Einsatz. Kompakte Sprachlinks sind seit 2014, nachdem es in einem OPW-Projekt erstellt wurde, als separate Beta-Funktion verfügbar.

Contents

Wie es funktioniert[edit]

Bildschirmfoto der kompakten Sprachlinks

Kompakte Sprachlinks können durch eine Auswahl unter Einstellungen -> Aussehen -> Sprachen ein- und ausgeschaltet werden. Diese Einstellungen wird derzeit in mehreren Schritten den Benutzern aller Wikimedia-Wikis freigeschaltet.

Mit den kompakten Sprachlinks wird dem Nutzer zunächst eine kurze Liste relevanter Sprachen angezeigt. Diese Auswahl beruht auf vorherigen Sprachwahlen und deinem Standort. Du kannst mehr darüber erfahren unter dem Punkt Wie bestimmt die universelle Sprachauswahl, welche Sprachen ich wohl verstehe?.

Bildschirmfoto der Sprachenleiste der kompakten Sprachlinks, der auch eine Kennzeichnung als exzellenter Artikel enthält.

Am Ende der Liste findet sich eine Anzeige der Anzahl von Sprachen, in denen es die Seite gibt. Wenn man darauf klickt, werden die übrigen Sprachen angezeigt. Sie können nach dem Namen der Sprache in jeder Sprache durchsucht werden, und sie kann mit Tippfehlern umgehen. Die Suche nach Sprachcodes wird auch unterstützt.

Du kannst auch Kennzeichnungen wie „exzellenter Artikel“ in diesem Sprachfeld sehen.

Häufig gestellte Fragen[edit]

Warum wird diese Funktion benötigt?[edit]

Die Liste der Sprachlinks ist in vielen Artikeln sehr lang. Schon in einer Liste mit zehn Einträgen ist es für viele schwer, die Sprache, die sie suchen, zu finden, und in vielen Artikeln umfasst die Liste mehr als hundert Einträge. Mehrsprachige Benutzer, die oft zwischen den Sprachen hin- und herwechseln, müssen jedesmal schauen, wo genau sie ihre Sprachen inmitten einer langen Liste finden.

In vielen Projekten gibt es Anpassungen der Sprachliste für das ganze Projekt oder in den Benutzereinstellungen. In einigen Wikipedias werden zum Beispiel einige Sprachen immer an den Anfang der Liste gesetzt, einige heben manche Sprachen in fetter Schrift hervor, einige haben Gadgets, die sich dem Benutzerwunsch anpassen, usw.

Ideen für ein globales Feature dieser Art sind mindestens seit 2010 aufgekommen.

Wie kann ich auswählen, welche Sprachen mir angezeigt werden?[edit]

Klicke einfach auf das Feld, das sich beim Klick auf "X mehr" öffnet.

Immer wenn du auf eine Sprache klickst, wird sie automatisch zu den Sprachen hinzugefügt, die zu Beginn in der kompakten Liste angezeigt wird.

Du kannst die Sprachen auch in deinen Browser-Einstellungen festlegen.

Ich habe die kompakten Sprachlinks schon als Beta-Feature benutzt. Was wird sich ändern?[edit]

Du solltest keine größeren Änderungen bei den Sprachlinks bemerken. Die kompakten Sprachlinks werden aber nicht mehr als Feature im Beta-Bereich angezeigt, sondern als neue Einstellung unter "Einstellungen -> Aussehen -> Sprachen", wo die Checkbox ausgewählt sein wird.

I habe die kompakten Sprachlinks ausprobiert und das Beta-Feature dann abgeschaltet. Jetzt ist es wieder an. Wie schalte ich es aus?[edit]

Screenshot der Einstellungen, Bereich Aussehen, um kompakte Sprachlinks einzustellen

Please go to Preferences -> Appearance and scroll down to the Languages section. Here you can see a checkbox which says Use compact language links, with languages relevant for you. Deselect this checkbox and save the preferences. (See image)

Wie viele Sprachen werden in der kompakten Liste angezeigt?[edit]

Zwischen 7 und 9 Sprachen werden in der Regel in der kompakten Liste angezeigt. Die Größe der Liste basiert auf zwei Faktoren.

  1. Making enough room for the number of languages people may need. During our research on different language-related projects we have asked participants about the languages they speak and 9 was a limit very rarely exceeded. For example, for Content Translation, from 187 responses 85% of the users spoke 4 languages or less. This also seems consistent with research on multilingual editors.
  2. We wanted the list to be short enough to be processed quickly and easily. While a person's working memory can be different from human to human, the 7 ± 2 seems to be a common guideline that suggests we may be providing a short enough list for people to process.

Ist es nicht einfacher, die benötigte Sprache zu finden, wenn alle Sprachen angezeigt werden?[edit]

Our research showed that finding a language using a compact list required less effort than going through a longer flat list.

Even if the needed language doesn't appear in the initial list, it is easier to find it using the panel and the search box than to find it in the long list with all the languages.

And after the language is clicked once, it will always be shown with the highest priority in the initial short list. Most users access a small set of languages repeatedly, and the long list requires that they search for them every single time, so having the frequent languages appear automatically saves a lot of time.

Some users find it convenient to search for the language they need using the "Find in page" function that can be found in many browsers, but various estimates put the number of web users who are aware of this feature at about 10—20%.[1] In addition, it can match similar words in the content, it is not able to correct for typos or consider alternative ways to refer to a language including ISO codes, different scripts, etc., and all these features are provided by the search box in the pop-up language selection panel.

How do you decide which languages are shown to me in the initial compact list?[edit]

The main factor for choosing the languages are the previous language selections from the user. This means that you can select the languages you want by simply clicking on them. If you are interested in reading an article in Japanese, once you select it, a link to the Japanese language will be surfaced for easier access next time.

The first time, due to the lack of previous choices by yourself, the language selection is based on other factors, in the following order:

  1. The languages of your web browser. This is configurable by you.
  2. The languages defined in your Babel box.[2]
  3. Geographic information, which is based on the CLDR Territory-Language information. If the information for your country there is not precise, you can contribute to it.
  4. Languages that are used in the page's content with the lang attribute. This attribute is added by various "lang" templates in Wikipedias in many languages, when mentioning the name of a foreign person or place—for example, in the English Wikipedia article Prague, the Czech name of the city ("Praha") is mentioned using the "w:lang-cs" template. Using any HTML element with the lang attribute would work as well (for example, <span lang="cs">Praha</span>).
  5. Featured articles.
  6. If the methods above didn't find 9 languages that would be relevant for the reader, some major world languages will be shown if articles in them are available: Chinese, English, French, Indonesian, etc.


Does this feature prioritize major world languages on the expense of smaller ones?[edit]

No, absolutely not.

The feature makes the best effort to auto-adapt itself to every user. The languages that are shown in the initial short list with the highest priority are taken from each user's previous choices, browser settings and location. Some major world languages are shown only as the last fallback with the lowest priority.

In fact, thanks to respecting user preferences and using geolocation, it may make some smaller languages more prominent when people who speak them are reading pages that have links to these languages.

How about languages that are not tied to any territory, such as Esperanto? Won't this feature hurt the traffic to projects in these languages?[edit]

Links to all languages are available, but shown in the panel that appears when you click the "More" button, and our research shows that they are easier to find in this panel than in the long list. A user who clicks any language in the panel once, will see this language in the initial list after that.

We are watching the effect of this feature on the clicks on the links and on the traffic to all the projects. As of late August 2016, several weeks have already passed since the enabling of the feature on some major languages, such as Russian, Spanish and Chinese, and the number of clicks on the links, as well as the traffic to them have not gone down in any language.

Furthermore, in some languages we have observed that the percent of people who entered the project in that language through interlanguage links from other languages has grown considerably, likely because the links are now easier to find. Here are the metrics from some languages. See also the full statistics for all the languages.

Monat Albanisch Tschechisch Dänisch Esperanto Lettisch
Juni 2016(2016-06) 0,9954% 0,3665% 0,5818% 2,4613% 1,1190%
Juli 2016(2016-07) 2,3991% 0,4887% 1,0079% 3,8321% 1,8054%
August 2016(2016-08) 3,6611% 0,5431% 0,9685% 4,2037% 2,4950%
Growth % 268% 48% 66% 71% 123%

Wie kann ich die Spracheinstellungen meines Browsers ändern?[edit]

Um die Spracheinstellungen deines Browsers zu ändern, befolge diese Anweisungen:

Mozilla Firefox 52[edit]

(Dreistreifen-Symbol) -> Einstellungen -> Inhalt -> Sprache -> Wählen... -> Wählen Sie eine Sprache zum Hinzufügen aus...

Google Chrome 56[edit]

(Three stripes icon) -> Settings -> Show advanced settings -> Languages -> Language and input settings -> Add

Microsoft Internet Explorer 10[edit]

  • Windows 7: (Gear icon) -> Internet options -> General -> Languages -> Add
  • Windows 8: (Gear icon) -> Internet options -> General -> Languages -> Set Language Preferences -> Add a language

Microsoft Internet Explorer 11[edit]

(Gear icon) -> Internet options -> General -> Languages -> Set Language Preferences -> Add a language

Microsoft Edge[edit]

This is not done from the browser itself, but in the operating system. Go to the computer's System settings, and then: Time & Language -> Region & language -> Add a language

Opera 43[edit]

Menu -> Settings -> Browser -> Languages -> Preferred languages -> Add language

What are the feature's success metrics?[edit]

The essential success metric is that the number of clicks on interlanguage links doesn't go down. Also, we hope to see that it becomes easier for readers to find languages that are relevant to them.

The developers have started recording the total number of clicks on interlanguage clicks to each language every day in May 2016, before the enabling of the feature to anonymous users started. We are seeing that they started to go up several weeks after the deployment. As of December 2016, the percent of clicks on interlanguage links out of the number of pageviews in each language is higher than it was in May 2016, in Wikipedia in all languages.

You can find more information about this data at the page Universal Language Selector/Compact Language Links/metrics/dataUniversal Language Selector/Compact Language Links/metrics/data.

Wie bestimmt ihr meinen Standort?[edit]

Your IP address is checked on the servers against a database which contains mappings from addresses to approximate locations. The results are stored in a cookie named GeoIP. ULS then reads this information and combines it with a list languages spoken in each country of the world, which is maintained by the CLDR project of the Unicode Consortium. The page wikitech:Geolocation has some more information about this.

It is said that geolocation is used to determine the language selection. How important is this criteria?[edit]

Geolocation is not perfect, but that is neither the only nor the primary information source. It is used in addition to more reliable sources: your previous selections and browser languages. In any case, our data relies on CLDR and it is expected to improve over time and we encourage users to ask for improvements on it.

With geolocation, are you not enforcing certain languages, which would be contrary to the mission of the Wikimedia Foundation?[edit]

Geolocation is only one of the mechanisms used to guess the user's language. In fact, if suggestions include the languages of a region this can bring more visibility to them than the old list.

Besides, emphasizing these languages makes smaller languages more prominent in the areas where they are spoken.

How can I make the data about the languages spoken in my country more precise?[edit]

We suggest all people to check the entries for their language in the CLDR Language-Territory database and to update it if needed. All languages, including constructed languages like Esperanto, can be added to it if there is data about the number of speakers in a given country.

Ich verwende die meiste Zeit ein VPN. Die Geolocation-Informationen bringen mir nichts.[edit]

Geolocation is only one of the mechanisms used to guess the user's language. Your browser settings and previously selected languages will always be used.

Why do the compact language links seem to work differently on the main page of my wiki?[edit]

Most likely this happens because the display of the interlanguage links on the main page of your wiki is customized using the {{noexternallanglinks}} magic word. This was done in some Wikimedia wikis because there's a main page in all languages and this makes the list of languages particularly long, while the content of the main page itself is usually quite short.

With compact language links this customization shouldn't be needed on the main page, because the list is already compact and the languages are chosen automatically for each user, so the editors community in your wiki should consider removing it.

Why do I see some of the languages listed in the interlanguage links as gray?[edit]

Screenshot of Compact Language Links interlanguage list with gray links shown by Content Translation for missing articles

The language lists that you see in gray are being shown by Content Translation which is a beta feature that you have enabled. The languages in gray indicate that the article you are viewing is not present in those languages and can be translated via Content Translation by clicking on the gray links.

Where can I provide feedback?[edit]

You can use the project talk page. Bugs and feature requests will be tracked in Phabricator under the #ULS-CompactLinks project.

Some labels in the language selector are not translated to my language. Where can I translate them?[edit]

Please go to translatewiki.net, open an account, and complete the translation of the following two groups:


Bekannte Probleme und gewünschte Funktionen[edit]

Gesamte Liste auf Phabricator.

  • Previous choices are not remembered cross-wiki. The previously selected languages are currently only remembered in the current wiki.


Einzelnachweise[edit]

  1. Do 90% of People Not Use CTRL+F?, Blog of Metrics, Mozilla
  2. This works only for logged-in users who use the {{#babel|}} notation on their user page. Furthermore, the BabelMainCategory variable must be set up for your wiki in the InitialiseSettings.php file. See the documentation of the Babel extension. If you have a Babel box on your global user page, then the languages that you defined there will be shown on wikis on which you don't have a user page.