手册:在 Debian 或 Ubuntu 上运行 MediaWiki

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This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Running MediaWiki on Debian or Ubuntu and the translation is 39% complete.

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安装指导Manual:Installation guide
FreeBSDManual:Running MediaWiki on FreeBSD
GNU/LinuxManual:Running MediaWiki on GNU/Linux
- ALT LinuxManual:Running MediaWiki on ALT Linux
- Arch LinuxManual:Running MediaWiki on Arch Linux
- DamnsmalllinuxManual:Running MediaWiki on Damnsmalllinux
- Debian or UbuntuManual:Running MediaWiki on Debian or Ubuntu
- FedoraManual:Running MediaWiki on Fedora
- GentooManual:Running MediaWiki on Gentoo Linux
- MandrivaManual:Running MediaWiki on Mandriva
- Red Hat Enterprise LinuxManual:Running MediaWiki on Red Hat Linux
- SlackwareManual:Running MediaWiki on Slackware Linux
Mac OS XManual:Running MediaWiki on Mac OS X
NetWareManual:Running MediaWiki on NetWare
SolarisManual:Running MediaWiki on Solaris
- Solaris 11 / opensolarisManual:Running MediaWiki on Solaris 11 / opensolaris
- Solaris 10Manual:Running MediaWiki on Solaris 10
WindowsManual:Running MediaWiki on Windows
- Windows Server 2016Manual:Installing MediaWiki on Windows Server 2016
一键Manual:Wiki on a stick
- Uniform ServerManual:Installation on Uniform Server (Windows)
- XAMPPManual:Installing MediaWiki on XAMPP
Sourceforge.netManual:Installing MediaWiki on SourceForge.net
This page documents how to install MediaWiki using the release tarballs. If you want to use system packages, see User:Legoktm/Packages.

这个页面讲解如何在 w:zh:Debianw:zh:Ubuntu GNU/Linux 服务器上安装 MediaWiki。 下面是以 Debian 为例进行说明,也适用于 Ubuntu 和 Raspbian,不一样的地方会特别标明。

Introduction

This installation procedure requires knowledge of issuing commands from a terminal (e.g. installing applications) and using a text editor (e.g. graphical: gedit, kate; text: nano, emacs, vi).

When text editing is required it can be carried out on the graphical desktop by pressing Alt-F2 and typing

    gksudo gedit 文件名

Alternatively, editing can be done from a terminal

    sudo nano 文件名

Of course, kate could be used instead of gedit or vi instead of nano.

手把手的教程

确保您的 Debian 系统是最新的

Double check that Debian is up-to-date by running:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

or in one line

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade


安装 LAMP 软件栈

Ubuntu Server Edition makes LAMP (Apache, PHP, and MySQL) available for installation during the install process. During the installation step, make sure you choose to install a LAMP server. Alternately, you can install all of these packages from a standard installation using these commands:

Ubuntu 16.04.2 LTS (Xenial) and Debian Stretch include PHP 7.0, and renamed many packages from "php5" to plain "php". In addition, some PHP modules are now in separate packages (xml, mbstring).
sudo apt-get install apache2 mysql-server php php-mysql libapache2-mod-php php-xml php-mbstring
Ubuntu Trusty, Debian Jessie and Raspbian (Jessie) include PHP 5, and use "php5" in most (but not all) packages.
sudo apt-get install apache2 mysql-server php5 php5-mysql libapache2-mod-php5

可选的有用软件包

These packages are not necessary but may be useful, depending on the installation:

名称 包名 说明
可选的 PHP 缓存 php-apcu or php5-apcu Modern MediaWiki versions will automatically take advantage of this being installed for improved performance.
PHP Unicode normalization php-intl or php5-intl MediaWiki will fallback to a slower PHP implementation if not available.
ImageMagick imagemagick Image thumbnailing.
Inkscape inkscape Alternative means of SVG thumbnailing, than ImageMagick. Sometimes it will render SVGs better if originally created in Inkscape.
PHP GD library php-gd or php5-gd Alternative to ImageMagick for image thumbnailing.
PHP command-line php-cli or php5-cli Ability to run PHP commands from the command line, which is useful for debugging and running maintenance scripts.
PHP cURL php-curl or php5-curl Required by some extensions such as Extension:Math. See Manual:cURL
git source control version git If not present config script will tell you that it is not installed

你可以通过 sudo apt-get install packagename 安装以上的任意一个包。

If you want to install all of them: sudo apt-get install php-apcu php-intl imagemagick inkscape php-gd php-cli php-curl git If you install php-apcu you will have to reload your apache configuration in order to avoid a warning message when running configuration script:

sudo service apache2 reload

安装 MediaWiki

你可以从浏览器或命令行下载

    cd /tmp/
    wget https://releases.wikimedia.org/mediawiki/1.31/mediawiki-1.31.1.tar.gz
  • 解压到你的 Web 目录里
tar -xvzf /tmp/mediawiki-*.tar.gz
sudo mkdir /var/lib/mediawiki
sudo mv mediawiki-*/* /var/lib/mediawiki


Configuration mysql

But before proceeding with the initial MediaWiki installation, there are certain steps you need to do first!

You will have to:

  • create a NEW mysql user (new_mysql_user):
# sudo mysql -u root -p and enter password of mysql root user (if you have no configured password it will be empty, so just press return)
mysql> CREATE USER 'new_mysql_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'THISpasswordSHOULDbeCHANGED';
mysql> quit;
  • create a NEW mysql database pi_wiki:
# sudo mysql -u root
mysql> CREATE DATABASE pi_wiki;
mysql> use pi_wiki;
Database changed
  • GRANT the NEW mysql user access to the NEW created mysql database pi_wiki:
mysql> GRANT ALL ON pi_wiki.* TO 'new_mysql_user'@'localhost';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql>quit;

可选操作:配置 PHP

这些步骤是可选的,也可以在安装之后进行。 没有这些改变 MediaWiki 也可以运行。

编辑你的 PHP 配置文件,php.ini。 在 Ubuntu Trusty 和 Debian Jessie 上,这个文件位于 /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini

On Ubuntu Xenial and Debian Stretch (PHP 7), it is located at /etc/php/7.0/apache2/php.ini.

最大上传文件大小

假设要将各种文件上传到 Wiki 作为内容,则必须调整上传文件的最大大小限制。 大约在文件上传小节的下半部分。 修改以下语句:

upload_max_filesize = 2M

将上传大小上限调整到至少 20M。 将来你需要上传更大的文件时,你可能需要再次调整这个值。

内存限制

一些 PHP 脚本运行时需要很多内存。 To increase the maximum amount of memory a script can use, page down to about 21%, and change the following entry, if found, from

memory_limit = 8M

to

memory_limit = 128M

If it is already set to 128M or more, leave it as is.

配置 MediaWiki

Navigate your browser to http://localhost/mediawiki (for certain installations it may be http://localhost/mediawiki/config or http://wiki.hostname.com/config instead) and following the procedure given.

If this gives a 404 error then working a symbolic link should solve it:

sudo ln -s /var/lib/mediawiki /var/www/html/mediawiki
  • Pay close attention for "Checking environment..." in MediaWiki installation script.

This can solve a lot of problems by specifically identifying the source of any errors.

It may complain that php extensions like mbstring and xml are missing even you have installed them. Please manually activate them by using:

 sudo phpenmod mbstring
 sudo phpenmod xml
 sudo systemctl restart apache2.service

Fill out all the field in the configuration form and press to continue button. You will have to use your username and password provided in the mysql configuration section:

mysql> CREATE USER 'new_mysql_user'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'THISpasswordSHOULDbeCHANGED';

Under Database Config, you may change the database name and DB username to new values, but you must turn on "Use superuser account", name:

debian-sys-maint

giving the mysql root password you configured earlier.

The configuration process will prompt you to download a LocalSettings.php that must be saved to the parent directory of the new wiki. The configuration page will give the exact directory/filename that must be moved:

 sudo mv ~/Downloads/LocalSettings.php /var/lib/mediawiki/

And navigate your browser to http://localhost/mediawiki (or http://server_ip_address/mediawiki or http://server_ip_address/mediawiki/index.php) to see your new wiki.

完成! 你现在有了一个可正常运行的 Wiki

额外的 wiki 配置

基本信息

Mediawiki is configured by the LocalSettings.php file, usually found in /var/lib/mediawiki. Manual:LocalSettings.php has detailed information that may be useful. The following are changes that appear to be universally helpful

To edit LocalSettings.php use

gksudo gedit /var/lib/mediawiki/LocalSettings.php

or from a terminal

sudo nano /var/lib/mediawiki/LocalSettings.php


文件上传

参见 手册:配置文件上传Manual:Configuring file uploads

参见 手册:$wgLogoManual:$wgLogo

MediaWiki 扩展

The current tarball for Mediawiki comes with a package of 15 or so of the most popular extensions, but there are literally hundreds more.

Instructions on how to enable extensions can be found at Manual:Extensions#Installing an extensionManual:Extensions#Installing an extension.

美化 URLs

To use /wiki/* instead of /wiki/index.php/* on Debian, follow the recommended short URL guide using '/mediawiki' as the script path instead of '/w' and placing the rewrites in /etc/apache2/conf-enabled/mediawiki.conf.

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