Jump to content

Handbuch:Parameter von index.php

From mediawiki.org
This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Parameters to index.php and the translation is 16% complete.

Diese Seite stellt einige Parameter von index.php vor, dem Hauptskript der MediaWiki-Software, wie es MediaWiki selbst bereitgestellt wird. Die meisten dieser Argumente werden normalerweise als GET-Parameter in der URL angegeben, können aber auch als POST-Daten übergeben werden. POST ist in einigen Fällen erforderlich, z. B. bei der Säuberungsaktion (purge). Einige Erweiterungen bieten zusätzliche Parameter.

Die Informationen dieser Seite sind unvollständig.[1]


Die Parameter der index.php beziehen sich in der Regel auf die Seite, für die sie gelten, und haben eine entsprechende Bedeutung. Die Seite (oder eine ihrer Varianten) kann durch Eingabe eines oder mehrerer der folgenden Parameter angegeben werden: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ferengi&curid=177126&diff=304901009&oldid=304764764

Name Beschreibung
title Der Titel der Seite. Es kann eine Wikiseite oder eine Spezialseite sein, je nach den sonstigen Parametern. Um eine Spezialseite in deiner Wiki-Konfiguration zu deaktivieren, kannst du den SpecialPage_initList -Hook verwenden.
curid Die ID der Wikiseite; überschreibt den Wert von title.

Some actions (such as view and edit) also work on a particular revision of a page. Such a revision is identified by the following two parameters, allowing the omission of the title and the id of the page.

Name Beschreibung
oldid The ID of a revision
direction Instead of the revision given by oldid, use:
  • direction=prev: the one preceding it
  • direction=next: the one following it


The following is a list of values for the action parameter.

Some of these actions can be enabled/disabled by using a dedicated configuration setting in LocalSettings.php . Where available, these local settings are listed.[2]

Name Funktion Beispiel
view View is the default action; view is the one action that is used when no action is explicitly given www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=view
watch Adds the page to the user's watchlist www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=watch
unwatch Removes the page from the user's watchlist www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=unwatch
delete Löscht eine Seite

By default, delete returns a form for the user to confirm deletion and specify a reason.[3]

revert Reverts to a previous version of an image. The following two other parameters are required:
  • oldimage, the id of the version to revert to;
  • wpEditToken, a valid edit token;
rollback Rollbacks the last edits made by the last editor of the page; in other words, it restores the last version of the article whose editor is not the last one. The edit is marked as minor and a default edit summary is used.[4]

The following two other parameters are required:

  • from is the username whose edits are to be reverted
  • token is a rollback token; used to prevent users from being tricked into performing an unwanted rollback by following a link or clicking a button in an external website.
protect Shows or changes the protection levels of a page:
  • By default, this script returns a form showing the current protection levels of the page, allowing the user to change the protection levels of the page.[5]
unprotect Same page as protect (unprotect and protect are the same page, and do the same thing). www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=unprotect
markpatrolled Marks an edit as patrolled; see Help:Patrolled edit on Meta.

rcid is the id of an edit in the recentchanges table

render Outputs the HTML rendering of the entire page content; similar to the view action, but only the unstyled article text is output, not any part of the user interface (additional toolboxes, search box, stylesheets, etc.).
For more stable programmatic access or to retrieve the HTML of only a piece of page content, you should use the parse API with page or pageid parameters.
purge Clears the page's cache, forcing the page to be redisplayed from its source.
  • This action is performed only if requested via a POST request; otherwise, a form to confirm purging is shown (pressing the OK button posts the purge request, which is then executed).


edit Shows the editor for the page.

The editor shown depends on the user preferences. See Editor.

submit When viewed directly (HTTP GET), shows the editor, like "edit".
  • If the default editor is set to VisualEditor , action=submit will force showing the source code editor. VisualEditor can be selected with veaction=edit URL parameter.
  • The #/editor/… overlay of Extension:MobileFrontend on Skin:Minerva does not appear with action=submit. Instead, the default submission form is shown, which allows marking edits as "minor".

When viewing by submitting a form (HTTP POST), performs various actions related to changing the page (see #What to do below for more details):

  • Change a page,
  • preview a new version of the page, or
  • show the difference with a new version.
editredlink Gleiches wie edit.[6] www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=editredlink
history Shows the history of the page. (See history, below) www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=history
historysubmit When viewing the difference between revisions, after clicking "compare selected revisions" on the history page. This requires a "diff" and/or "oldid" parameter, otherwise it just shows the page itself. www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=historysubmit&diff=456290&oldid=456270
raw Shows the raw content of the page. (See Raw, below) A pop up window will open up, asking whether you would like to save the page in index.php.[7] www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=raw
ajax (veraltet in 1.27); (entfernt in 1.38) If enabled, calls a php function registered via $wgAjaxExportList ; see Handbuch:Ajax .[8]
credits Shows a list of people who contributed to the page in question using the real name specified in the user's preferences. Currently disabled on Wikimedia wikis, but is enabled by default on vanilla MediaWiki. translatewiki.net/w/i.php?title=Translating:MediaWiki&action=credits
info Shows information about the page, such as the number of users having it in their watchlist, the number of edits, the number of authors. See the Reimplement info action RfC for context. www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&action=info
revisiondelete Set visibility restrictions on revision text, edit summary, and editor's username/IP address (requires deleterevision user right)

User preference overriding

The following parameters override some of the user's preferences. Other parameters explained in other sections are "diffonly", "internaledit", and "externaledit". The below parameters affect all actions but "render" and "raw".

Name Funktion Beispiel
useskin Specify a skin www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?useskin=modern
uselang Specify a language for the UI elements (such as the "my talk" link, etc.), i.e. the user interface language; this is especially useful for creating an account, because at that stage no preference settings apply.

The special language code "qqx " can be used to display the ids of all system messages used on a page.

variant Specify a language variant for the UI elements (this is used for example in the Chinese Wikipedia, as the Chinese language has variants);
printable (veraltet in 1.35) When set to yes, the page is shown in a form that is suitable for printing.
debug When set to true (e.g. 1 or true), the ResourceLoader serves non-minified JavaScript and CSS. See ResourceLoader/Features#Debug mode. www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=Project:Sandbox&debug=true
safemode When enabled (e.g. set to 1 or true), user-provided CSS and JS will not be loaded. This disables personal scripts and styles (e.g. "User:" common.js and css), and site-wide scripts and styles (e.g. "MediaWiki:Common.js" and "MediaWiki:Common.css"), and all gadgets.[9] It is possible to mark site-wide styles ("MediaWiki:Common.css") as safe via $wgAllowSiteCSSOnRestrictedPages , which permits them in safemode. www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=MediaWiki&safemode=1
useskinversion Specify a skin version[10] www.mediawiki.org/w/index.php?title=MediaWiki&useskinversion=2

View and render

View is the default action. If no other action is added to the URL, action=view is used. This action shows a page, a revision, or the difference between two revisions of the same or two different pages. Below is a (partial) list.

the value of this parameter identifies a revision; the difference between another revision and this one is returned:
  • if oldid is not passed, the difference between this revision and the previous one on the same article is shown;
  • otherwise, the difference between the revision given by oldid/direction and this one is shown; the value of this parameter can be a revision id, the values prev or next to identify a revision relative to the one given by oldid/direction, and the value cur to identify the latest revision of the page;
Note that oldid and diff need not be two revisions of the same article, allowing two revisions of two different pages to be compared
if the value of this parameter is 'no' and the page is a redirect, the page itself is shown and not the target of the redirect; this parameter has effect only on action=view and action=render and only if neither oldid nor diff is given, as this is the only case where the target article is shown instead of the redirect;
when the page is the result of following a redirect from an external wiki, this parameter tells which wiki that was, so that the "Redirected from ..." line can be shown
override the user's preference on whether to render the page when a diff is requested, eg. diffonly=yes
if non-blank (and if searches are enabled), override all other parameters and perform a search

The following parameters apply only to categories.

if the page is a category, only list entries whose sortkey are equal or follows the value of this parameter;
Beispiel: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Log&type=upload&from=20070814233520&until=20070814233625
Links to a log of all the images uploaded on August 14, 2007 from 23:35:20 until 23:36:25
if the page is a category, only list entries whose sortkey precedes the value of this parameter; only used if from is not passed;

The following parameter apply only to images.

a page number in a multi-page media; it currently only applies to DjVu and PDF files; first page is numbered 1;


The number of page edits to list, the maximum is 5000 edits.
Beispiel: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Contributions&limit=13&contribs=user&target=Atlgirl052005 - lists 13 edits per page.
the relative order of edit history pages.
page edits are sorted in decreasing timestamp.
uses a timestamp to specify which part of the history is displayed;
Returns the edits which occurred before the timestamp;
Beispiel: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Contributions&offset=20090815195334&contribs=user&target=Atlgirl052005
Shows the edits which occurred immediately before the timestamp 20090815195334 (20090815195334 is not shown).
Parameter format is yyyymmddhhmmss. So 20090815195334 was created on August 15, 2009 [20090815] at 19:53 (UTC) and 34 seconds [195334].
See Wikipedia:Complete diff and link guide.
if dir=prev is added, it works the other way around, listing all edits after the timestamp[11]
Beispiel: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Special:Contributions&offset=20090815195334&dir=prev&contribs=user&target=Atlgirl052005
Shows the edits which occurred immediately after the timestamp 20090815195334 (20090815195334 is not shown).
Example to show only the very first edit on a page: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wikipedia:Village_pump_(technical)&action=history&dir=prev&limit=1
a feed for the changes in the history is returned; allowed values are atom and rss. Can be disabled with $wgFeed .
(deprecated - should be avoided, because it has been superseded) go=first the first (earliest) page of history is shown


Passing action=raw returns the source code of a page or revision. For caching and security reasons, this should generally only be used via the script path, that is, index.php?title=.... While "short urls" like /wiki/ are only meant for action=view, they unofficially tend to work for other actions as well. This is expressly discouraged for action=raw as it leads to less effective caching and bypasses automatic purging after edits.

if passed with value expand, templates within the page are expanded;
the content-type value to be used in the HTTP header when returning the raw content, instead of the default text/x-wiki; this can only be one of the allowed types, which currently are text/x-wiki, text/javascript, text/css, and application/x-zope-edit
the id of a specific revision to return
either next, prev, or cur; instead of the revision specified by oldid, returns the one following it, the one preceding it, or the current (last) one;
Limits output to a particular section or subsections of the document. Sections are specified with non-negative integers : section 0 being the section before any named sections, section one being the first named section or subsection and so on. The numbering scheme treats sections and subsections as identical. A list of the sections and subsections can be obtained via API with api.php?action=parse&text={{:My_page}}__TOC__&prop=sections.

Edit and submit

The edit and submit actions perform almost the same action. By default, they return an "edit page" form for the page. Different results can be obtained by passing other arguments; some results (such as saving the new version of a page) can only be obtained using POST. This action takes the standard arguments for specifying a page or a page revision.

Options affecting the edit form

The following options produce an effect on the edit form. (Note: 'section' also affects how the page is saved. Additionally, 'preload' and 'preloadparams' only work on wikitext contentmodel)

specifies the index of a section within a document to preload and edit; sections are numbered sequentially from 0 on; section 0 is the part of the article before the first section header; value new is used to append a new section to the document;
specifies a page, of which the wikitext is used as the initial value of the textarea in the edit form if the page or section to be edited does not exist; if it exists the preload command is ignored; also see Manual:Creating pages with preloaded text ;
Beispiel: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Main_Page?action=edit&section=new&preload=Project:Sandbox
preloadparams[] (or preloadparams%5B%5D): Replace $1 style parameters in preload text. For example https://mediawiki.org/wiki/Project:Sandbox?action=edit&section=new&preload=Manual:Creating_pages_with_preloaded_text/param_demo&preloadparams%5b%5d=first%20value&preloadparams%5b%5d=second%20value would cause Manual:Creating pages with_preloaded text/param demo to be preloaded into the edit form, but with $1 replaced by first value and $2 replaced by second value. (eingeführt in 1.23)
title of an existing article or template to be rendered above the edit form;
in the case of section=new, provides initial content of the "Subject/headline" box; it can be edited before saving;
Beispiel: $wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User_talk:5dsddddd&action=edit&section=new&preloadtitle=The+%5B%5BWP%3AARS%7CArticle+Rescue+Squadron%5D%5D
Example with both preloadtitle and preload: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User_Talk:Ikip?action=edit&section=new&preload=Template:Article_Rescue_Squadron_ invite&preloadtitle=Invitation
Do not show the "headline" box when doing section=new.
its value is used as the edit summary in place of the default one.
if set to yes or no, overrides user preference "Vorschau anzeigen, wenn mit der Bearbeitung begonnen wird" (task T11936);
internaledit/externaledit (entfernt in 1.22)
overrides user preference on external editors;
mode (entfernt in 1.22)
this parameter affects the result page if passed with value file and using an external editor;
undo, undoafter
attempts to undo a sequence of edits, from the undoafter revision up to the undo revision; technically, this is done by trying to merge the inverse of these edits with the sequence of all subsequent edits; the values of these parameters are ids of old revisions of a page; if merge is not possible, a regular edit form for that revision is returned

What to do

The following options tell the software what to do when submitting: saving, showing a preview, or showing the difference with the current version.

this argument is generated when saving the content of an edit form returned by the server, but is not actually used nor required when submitting (see below for required arguments to save);
set in a POST request to request a preview of the page or section as if the value of wpTextbox1 were saved;
  • by default, returns an edit form with a preview of the value of wpTextbox1;
  • if the additional live argument is passed, only the rendering of the value of wpTextbox1 is shown, not the form and the other GUI element; this is similar to the result of saving and then viewing with action=render; see Manual:Live preview for more info;
  • the argument wpLivePreview is identical to wpPreview; therefore, a regular preview is returned if live is not passed;
set in a POST request to request a table showing the changes between the current version of the page or section and the version as if value of wpTextbox1 were saved;

Parameters that are needed to save

The following parameters are required when a user saves a page. The edit summary field may also be required if so configured (see below).

the new page/section content;
the timestamp of when the user started editing the page; used to check whether the page has been deleted between this moment and the submission time (in this case, the user is asked to confirm saving);
in case the page was deleted after wpStarttime, this field confirms that the page is to be saved;
for new pages, it is equal to wpStarttime; otherwise, it is the timestamp of the last revision of the page; used to check edit conflicts;
an edit token; this is used to avoid users from being tricked into saving a page by following a link or pressing a button in an external site. For non-logged-in users, wpEditToken is required since phab:rSVN18112; it currently contains only the characters +\ rather than a random string (see edit token suffix).

For the page to be saved, wpStarttime, wpEdittime, wpTextbox1 and wpEditToken are required in a POST request, and neither wpPreview nor wpDiff are passed. If the page was deleted after wpStarttime, the boolean option wpRecreate is also required.

Optional additional data

The edit summary or the "ignore blank" parameter may be mandatory if "warn on blank summaries" is configured.

the edit summary;
if set in a save request, the edit is marked as minor; for preview and diff, it is the initial value of "this is a minor edit" checkbox in the edit form;
if passed on a save request, the page is added to the user's watchlist; if it is not passed in a save request, the page is removed from the user's watchlist; for preview or diff, this is the initial value of the "watch this page" checkbox of the edit form;
specify the index of a section within a document to submit to; sections are numbered sequentially from 0 on; section 0 is the part of the article before the first section header; value new is used to append a new section to the document;
an optional comma-separated list of tags to be added to the edit. If any of the provided tags are not activated for manual use, the edit will be rejected.
contains the MD5-hashing of the edit summary field as initially presented to the user in the edit form; this field is used to check if the user has modified that field before submitting: if the MD5 hashing of the value of wpEditSummary is the same as this field, the edit summary has not been modified;
save page even if user has not modified the edit summary, while they were supposed to;
in case of an edit conflict, it contains the value of wpTextbox1 of the save request that generated the conflict;
used to preserve the scrollbar position in the edit textbox when loading a preview.
if the user does not have permission to edit the page, redirect to the empty article page (e.g., "Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name") instead of showing the permission error notice. If the target page exists, ignore the edit parameter and display the (now-)existing page instead. This parameter is used on red links.
hidden input to modify after save URL and is not used by actual edit form. Intended to be used by gadgets and such.


Most special pages have additional parameters, specific to the function they perform. As an example, the parameters for Special:Export are outlined in Handbuch:Parameter für Spezial:Export

The following URL parameters provide initial values for some input fields; they can be edited before submitting the form.

text field with new title.
reason to pre-select in the dropdown.
text field with reason.
whether to select the "Leave a redirect behind" checkbox.
whether to select the "Versenden von E-Mails" checkbox.
whether to select the "Eigene Diskussionsseite bearbeiten" checkbox.
initially selected item in the drop-down box, value should match a row in the MediaWiki:Ipbreason-dropdown.
text field with custom reason; require wpReason=other
whether to select the "Sperre für einen Zeitraum von $1 die aktuell von diesem Benutzer genutzte IP-Adresse sowie automatisch alle folgenden, von denen aus er Bearbeitungen oder das Anlegen von Benutzerkonten versucht" checkbox.
whether to select the "Benutzer(diskussions)seite beobachten" checkbox.
text field with reason.

Maxlag parameter

MediaWiki Versions:
1.10 – 1.27

The maxlag parameter is used only if the software is running on a replicated database cluster.

The maxlag parameter makes it so a request is not served if there is high server traffic. maxlag parameter applies to all actions. maxlag parameter value is a number; the lower this value, the lower the traffic that causes the request not to be served. Zero is not allowed.


  1. Clients, die Formulare absenden, sollten alle in der HTML-Datei vorhandenen Formularparameter übermitteln; das Vertrauen auf eine statische Liste kann in Zukunft zu Fehlern führen. Um neue Funktionen in einer MediaWiki-Installation zu registrieren, siehe $wgActions .
  2. Additionally, any action except 'view' may be disabled by using the $wgActions variable. Additionally, $wgActions is available now for all actions.

    Additionally, if searches are enabled and the search parameter is supplied (and non-blank) then all actions are ignored and the search is performed.

  3. Deletion is performed upon a POST request, if a valid edit token is passed as the value of wpEditToken; this is what happens when the user confirms deletion. The delete reason is passed as the value of argument wpReason; this string is recorded in the deletion log (the log_comment_id field of the logging table) Deletion is also performed when deleting a single version of an image; this requires the version id to be passed in the parameter oldimage and a valid edit token in wpEditToken; in this case, the request can also be passed via GET
    • if the optional summary argument is passed, its value is used as the edit summary in place of the default one
    • if the optional bot argument is passed, the edit will be marked as a bot one (the edit is marked rc_bot=1 in the recentchanges table)
    • the bot argument can also be used on any page a [rollback] link will appear on, to cascade &bot=1 to all rollback links generated
    • if the optional hidediff argument is passed, the success message is shown instead of a diff of the change (this can be forced via user preferences)
  4. These levels are changed to the values of mwProtect-level-edit and mwProtect-level-move if the request is a POST one and a valid edit token is passed as wpEditToken; parameter mwProtect-reason gives the reason for protection or unprotection which will be recorded in the page log; if mwProtect-cascade is also passed, cascading protection is applied (all transcluded pages are set to the same protection levels)
    • more generally, the actions that can be limited are those listed in the $wgRestrictionTypes array; this array is initialized to array('edit','move') and can be changed in LocalSettings.php ; the protection action then accept a parameter mwProtect-level-$action for each action in that array
  5. For security reasons, in some versions of MediaWiki Raw is only allowed when using the "primary script access point", that is, when using the "ugly" URL form with index.php?title=...
    • requires $wgUseAjax to be true; the only callable functions are those in the array $wgAjaxExportList
    • additional parameters: rs is the function name (e.g., rs=wfSajaxSearch); the rsargs[] array is the list of arguments of this function (e.g., rsargs[]=abcd passes the abcd string to the function).
    • the JavaScript function sajax_do_call for calling Ajax functions is defined in ajax.js .
  6. Project:Tech News/2017#Tech News: 2017-16
  7. Reading/Web/Desktop Improvements#May 2020: First deployment - officewiki and testwiki
  8. For performance reasons, the value of this field is not actually an offset (the index of the first entry to show)

Siehe auch