手册:维护脚本

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This page is a translated version of the page Manual:Maintenance scripts and the translation is 49% complete.

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维护脚本用于进行各种管理、导入、维护、汇报与升级任务。这些脚本用PHP编写,位于MediaWiki安装目录下的maintenance子目录。

There are dozens of scripts with varying degrees of general utility and quality. You should carefully read the documentation on a script before using it; if a script isn't documented, take additional care running it.

配置

The $wgDBadminuser and $wgDBadminpassword configuration variables must be set in order to run maintenance scripts that need to alter the structure of the database (like 手册:update.php ) if the user configured in 手册:$wgDBuser doesn't have enough permissions. Alternatively, you can pass the --dbuser and --dbpass parameters to the script. The values for these variables differ based on the database engine that is being used to power your installation of MediaWiki. 如果未配置,它会使用手册:$wgDBuser 配置的用户。

MySQL

Some of the maintenance scripts require database permissions that, for security reasons, the main MediaWiki database account should not have. A separate database account with 'superuser' privileges for just the MediaWiki database should be created (if it does not already exist.) If the database that you use for MediaWiki is called wikidb, then the following SQL would create such a user who can exercise superuser privileges on localhost.:

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON wikidb.* TO 'wikidbadmin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'strong-password';

Once the account exists, the account name should be set in the $wgDBadminuser configuration variable. Like other configuration variables, $wgDBadminuser should be set in LocalSettings.php. A password for $wgDBadminuser must be set in the $wgDBadminpassword configuration variable.

PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL uses a different security model than MySQL and the same PostgreSQL server account used for day-to-day operation of the MediaWiki installation must also be used for running the maintenance scripts. This is necessary to ensure that the owner for new tables created by the maintenance scripts is set correctly. You don't need to set $wgDBadminuser or $wgDBadminpassword at all.

运行脚本

Example of IP address and FTP user name and password on the Godaddy.com hosting site.

The maintenance scripts must then be run from the command line. Users who do not access the server directly from its terminal will usually establish a connection through ssh. For Linux/Unix users this is by using the ssh client in a shell. For Windows users the use of a ssh client application such as the one introduced below is required.

Required program for Windows users: PuTTY or any terminal emulator

Under the Host Name (or IP address) enter the IP Address of your web hosting site.
  • 步骤2:在PuTTy,在Host Name (或IP地址)后输入主机的IP地址(必要情况下请联系网站提供商)并点击打开。
At the login as: line enter the FTP user name.
  • 步骤3:一个命令行窗口将会弹出。在login as:后输入FTP 用户名
On the FTP user name@IP Address's password line: type the FTP password.
  • 步骤4:输入FTP密码
The putty command line.
  • Step 5: Change the current directory to the maintenance subdirectory. You can type pwd to see what folder you are currently in. The maintenance folder is in the root mediawiki folder.
$ cd maintenance
  • 步骤6:执行需要运行的维护脚本
$ php rebuildall.php
如果发生错误(例如:“php.exe is no valid Win32 application”)可以尝试下面的措施:
$ php-cgi rebuildall.php
在Windows中,命令为:
$ C:\path\to\php\php-win.exe C:\path\to\mediawiki\maintenance\rebuildall.php
If your script fails to run, and spews out a lot of error messages, the first thing to try is to set the MW_INSTALL_PATH environment variable to point to the root of your MediaWiki installation. This will help scripts to find the necessary files, and is particularly relevant when running maintenance scripts provided by third-party extensions.

标准命令行选项

几乎在/maintenance中的所有PHP脚本都支持几个标准选项:

--help
显示帮助信息
--conf <path>
Location of LocalSettings.php, if not default (at parent directory of the script)
--dbuser <username>
Database account to use instead of the one specified in LocalSettings.php, not used for scripts that don't require a database connection or when SQLite database backend is used
--dbpass <password>
Database password to use instead of the one specified in LocalSettings.php, not used for scripts that don't require a database connection or when SQLite database backend is used
--globals
Output globals at the end of processing for debugging
--memory-limit <value>
Set memory limit for the script. Accepts ordinary numbers, standard php.ini abbreviations (1024K, 20M, 1G), max for no limit (will be used by default if omitted) and default for no change. (引入 自 1.17)
--quiet
屏蔽非错误输出
--wiki <id>
Wiki ID for wiki farms. This may be of the form dbname or dbname-prefix. LocalSettings.php will be run with the MW_DB and MW_PREFIX constants defined accordingly.
--profiler
Profiler output format (usually "text"). (引入 自 1.22)
--mwdebug
启用内置的MediaWiki开发选项。 (引入 自 1.31)

使用symlinks来安装MediaWiki

In cases where the MediaWiki php files are symlinked to a central installation, you will need to specify to the maintenance script the path of the LocalSettings.php file. For example:

php maintenance/importImages.php --conf /var/wwwdata/website.org/wiki/LocalSettings.php /tmp/wikiimages .jpg .png .svg

否则会发生如下错误:

A copy of your installation's LocalSettings.php
must exist and be readable in the source directory.


MediaWiki installs that use shared settings (family type)

Sometimes MediaWiki is installed as a family for many languages and settings (LocalSettings.php) are split to common part and language parts (see Manual:Wiki family#Shared Settings ) where common part is located outside of /w directory and accessed using relative link (require_once "../ExtensionSettings.php";). In this case maintenance scripts will not work when running them in /w/maintenance directory. 改从/w目录中运行:

$ php maintenance/rebuildall.php

无shell访问权

On many shared hosts, you won't have shell access. The following extensions may be useful to run maintenance scripts via the web: Maintenance and MaintenanceShell .

维护脚本列表

除了这个可能已经过时的列表,您可以

Here is the list of files included in the maintenance subdirectory located at the root of a MediaWiki installation. You can contribute to this manual by keeping this list up to date, adding a description of these files' specific purpose and of how an administrator should use them (command line examples, etc.). Be aware that these were created and named on an ad hoc basis so have some usability issues.

maintenance/

maintenance/archives

maintenance/benchmarks

maintenance/dev/includes

maintenance/language

maintenance/oracle

maintenance/storage

maintenance/term

另见