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Une photo de la Terre depuis l'espace
Cette photo de notre monde est appelée Le marble bleu.

Notre monde est une planète où les êtres humains ont formé de nombreuses sociétés.

Personne ne sait s'il existe des être intelligents dans les autres mondes. Il existe environ un septillion (1024) de mondes dans l'univers.

Les auteurs inventent quelques fois des nouveaux mots. Ils utilisent ces mots comme paramètres de leurs récits. Certains auteurs inventent des mots qui ont une magie.

Littérature mondiale

La littérature mondiale est une littérature lue par beaucoup de personnes partout dans notre monde. La littérature mondiale est différente de la littérature nationale.

I am more and more convinced that poetry is the universal possession of mankind, revealing itself everywhere and at all times in hundreds and hundreds of men. . . . C'est pourquoi je préfère chercher à mon propos dans les nations étrangères, et conseille à chacun de faire de même.La littérature nationale est un terme qui ne signifie plus grand chose aujourd'hui; l'ère de la littérature mondiale est à portée de main. – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1827

Les mondes dans la littérature

Une navette spaciale dans le ciel
Les personnages des romans de science fiction peuvent voyager vers d'autres mondes

Creating a different world is a literary device used by authors to illustrate ideas. By placing the story in the setting of a different world, the author can change the way that things happen. For example, the author might imagine a world that has very little water or a world that has very little dry land. Deciding what a world looks like and how the world works is called world-building. Thinking about their world helps the author make good choices about what happens to the characters in the story. Some authors think about many details, such as what languages the characters speak and what the architecture is on the world.

Les mondes en science fiction

Science fiction stories often use different worlds. Frank Herbert's famous Dune series focused on a world called Arrakis, which produced a very rare and very important spice.

Often a science-fiction story will involve multiple worlds. The Foundation series by Isaac Asimov was set in a galaxy with thousands of populated worlds. Asimov wrote the first books in the 1950s. In 1982, he published another book, called Foundation's Edge (ISBN 0385177259). The Star Wars movies had a several important worlds, and characters traveled between them. Some authors of science fiction worlds try to make them scrupulously obey the laws of physics.

Les mondes fantaisistes

Fantasy worlds are fictional worlds that use magic. This magic may involve saying magic words, using magical objects, or performing magical rituals.

Exemples de mondes fantaisistes
Auteur Monde Source Description
J.R.R. Tolkien Middle Earth The Lord of the Rings trilogy Middle-earth has some qualities similar to Mediæval Europe. The author added magical creatures like elves and wizards. A la fin de l'histoire, certaines créatures magiques quittent le monde.
J.R.R. Tolkien Arda The Silmarillion Arda is our world, but in a fictional time. Middle-earth is actually a continent of the world.
C. S. Lewis  Narnia The Chronicles of Narnia series The whole world is named after the principal country, Narnia. It features a powerful lion, an evil witch, giants, dragons, and some magical devices. This world is flat.
Piers Anthony Xanth The Magic of Xanth This world has many magical things. It is connected to modern America. Each creature in Xanth has a unique magical talent. Ces talents sont habituellement mineurs. Translating the book is difficult because of the many silly puns. En anglais, cela a un sens, mais pas forcément dans les autres langues.


On fait de la musique partout dans le monde.

La musique peut être une simple chanson pour les enfants comme celle-ci :

  \relative c'' {
    \key g \major
    \time 6/8
    d4 b8 c4 a8 | d4 b8 g4 g8 |
    a4 b8 c[ b] a | d4 b8 g4. |
  \addlyrics {
    Girls and boys come | out to play,
    The | moon doth shine _ as | bright as day; |

La musique peut être une partie d'une symphonie complexe. Cette partition affiche un passage d'un mouvement fameux de la symphonie numéro 9 en ré mineur de Ludwig van Beethoven :

\new StaffGroup <<
  \new Staff {
  \set Staff.instrumentName = #"V1"
  \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin"
    \relative c'' {
      \time 4/4
      \key d \major
      \clef treble

      fis2(_\markup { \dynamic p \italic dolce }^\markup { \italic arco } g4 a) | a4( g fis e) | d2( e4 fis) | fis4.( e8) e2 |
  \new Staff {
  \set Staff.instrumentName = #"V2"
  \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"violin"
    \relative c' {
      \time 4/4
      \key d \major
      \clef treble

      fis4( d e fis) | d4.( e8 fis d b cis) | a4 a'2 a4( | a)( e cis8) e( fis g) |
  \new Staff {
  \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Va"  
  \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"viola"
    \relative c'' {
      \time 4/4
      \key d \major
      \clef alto

      a2( d,) | b4.( cis8 d4) g( | g)( fis e d)( | d)( cis b a) |
  \new Staff {
  \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Vc"
  \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"cello"
    \relative c'' {
      \time 4/4
      \key d \major
      \clef bass

      a2( d,) | b4.( cis8 d4) g( | g)( fis e d)( | d)( cis b a) |
  \new Staff {
  \set Staff.instrumentName = #"Db"
  \set Staff.midiInstrument = #"contrabass"
    \relative c {
      \time 4/4
      \key d \major
      \clef bass

      d1( | d)( | d4) d( cis b) | a2( a8) g'( fis e) |

Les langues dans le monde

Les égyptiens utilisaient des images pour écrire leur langue. Les images s'appellent hiéroglyphes. Voici à quoi ils ressemblent :

F6p p p
t t t

Once upon a time, Greek and Latin were spoken by most traders in the Western world. Before then, traders learned the languages of nearby cities. Ancient traders did not travel around the world.

Some languages are spoken in many parts of the world. These are called world languages. As of 2015, English is the most common world language. Previously, French was the most popular language in the West. Chinese was used by traders in all of East Asia for centuries. Arabic is common in the Middle East, Northern Africa, and other parts of the world.

Santé du monde

The World Health Organisation (French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is an international organisation for public health.[1] It is part of the United Nations. The World Health Organisation began in 1948.[1] Its goal is for everyone in the world to be healthy and safe. It studies public health and tells governments and other organisations how to help people become healthy.

The organisation counts the number of people with health problems. These health problems include influenza, HIV infection, and depression. It also counts the number of people who have other problems, such as dirty water, hunger, and violence.

Mental health is also important.[2] People with mental health problems such as depression often die ten years early.

The World Bank is also interested in health.[3] Poor health affects the economy of a country.


Ce poème de John Donne mentionne le monde :

Her death hath taught us dearly that thou art
Corrupt and mortal in thy purest part.
Let no man say, the world itself being dead,
'Tis labour lost to have discovered
The world's infirmities, since there is none
Alive to study this dissection;
For there's a kind of world remaining still,
Though she which did inanimate and fill
The world, be gone...

Le poème entier peut être lu sur Wikisource.

Forme de notre monde

Notre monde n'est pas une sphère parfaite. Il est un peu applati.

La formule mathématique pour mesurer l'aplatissement d'une sphère est

For our world, is approximately 0.3%. The Moon is rounder. For the Moon, is approximately 0.1%. Jupiter is flatter. For Jupiter, is approximately 6.5%.

Planètes locales

Notre monde est une planète. Il existe plusieurs types de planètes dans le système solaire :

  • Planètes terrestres
  • Planètes géantes
    • Géants gazeux
    • Géants de glace
  • Dwarf planets

These are the known planets in the Solar System and some of their natural satellites:

  • Four terrestrial planets
    1. Mercure
    2. Vénus
    3. La terre
      • Un satellite, appelé la lune
    4. Mars
      • Deux satellites, appelés Phobos et Deimos
  • One dwarf satellite in the asteroids belt
    1. Céres
  • Two gas giants
    1. Jupiter
      • Four large satellites, called Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto
      • 75 autres satellites connus
    2. Saturne
      • 62 satellites connus. Certains sont très petits.
      • Seven are large. The largest, called Titan, is larger than the planet Mercury and it is the largest known natural satellite in the Solar System.
  • Deux géants de glace
    1. Uranus
      • Five large satellites
      • 22 other known satellites
    2. Neptune
      • One large satellite, called Triton
      • 13 other known satellites
  • Four dwarf planets in the Kuiper belt
    1. Pluton
      • Five satellites, called Charon, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx
    2. Haumea
    3. Makemake
    4. Eris



  1. 1.0 1.1 Burci, Gian Luca; Vignes, Claude-Henri (2004). World Health Organization. Kluwer Law International. ISBN 9789041122735. Pages 15–20.
  2. Walker, Elizabeth Reisinger (2015-04-01). "Mortality in mental disorders and global disease burden implications: a systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA psychiatry 72 (4): 334-341. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.2502. ISSN 2168-6238. PMID 25671328. PMC:4461039.  open access publication - free to read
  3. Mock, Charles N. (2015-05-30). "Essential surgery: key messages from Disease Control Priorities, 3rd edition". Lancet (London, England) 385 (9983): 2209-2219. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60091-5. ISSN 1474-547X. PMID 25662414. 

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