Phabricator project: #cite

Extension:Cite/fi

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This page is about the extension. See also the help on footnotes and the help on citing for how to use it.
This extension is bundled with MediaWiki 1.21 and above. Thus you do not have to download it again.
Starting with MediaWiki 1.25 the "Special:Cite" functionality that used to be documented on this page too is no longer part of the "Cite" extension. When upgrading from MediaWiki 1.24 the following line will have to be removed from your "LocalSettings.php" file:
require_once "$IP/extensions/Cite/SpecialCite.php";
The "Special:Cite" extension is now known as the CiteThisPage extension and may be installed separately.
MediaWiki extensions manualManual:Extensions
Crystal Clear action run.png
Cite

Release status:Extension status stable

ImplementationTemplate:Extension#type Tag
DescriptionTemplate:Extension#description Allows footnotes for citing sources and helps for correctly citing content in offline media
Author(s)Template:Extension#username Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmasontalk
Latest versionTemplate:Extension#version continuous updates
MediaWikiTemplate:Extension#mediawiki 1.23+
PHPTemplate:Extension#php 5.3+
Database changesTemplate:Extension#needs-updatephp No
LicenseTemplate:Extension#license GNU General Public License 2.0 or later
Download
ExampleTemplate:Extension#example Wikipedia:Footnotes
Hooks usedTemplate:Extension#hook
BeforePageDisplayManual:Hooks/BeforePageDisplay
DebugManual:Hooks/Debug
ParserBeforeTidyManual:Hooks/ParserBeforeTidy
ParserClearStateManual:Hooks/ParserClearState
ParserFirstCallInitManual:Hooks/ParserFirstCallInit
ParserGetVariableValueTsManual:Hooks/ParserGetVariableValueTs
ParserGetVariableValueVarCacheManual:Hooks/ParserGetVariableValueVarCache
SkinTemplateBuildNavUrlsNav_urlsAfterPermalinkManual:Hooks/SkinTemplateBuildNavUrlsNav_urlsAfterPermalink
SkinTemplateToolboxEndManual:Hooks/SkinTemplateToolboxEnd
User

Translate the Cite extension if it is available at translatewiki.net

Check usage and version matrix.

IssuesPhabricator

Open tasks · Report a bug

The Cite extension allows a user to create references as footnotes on a page. It adds two parser hooks to MediaWiki, <ref> and <references />; these operate together to add citations to pages.

Download[edit]

The extension can be retrieved directly from Git [?]:

  • Browse code
  • Some extensions have tags for stable releases.
  • Each branch is associated with a past MediaWiki release. There is also a "master" branch containing the latest alpha version (might require an alpha version of MediaWiki).

Extract the snapshot and place it in the extensions/Cite/ directory of your MediaWiki installation.

If you are familiar with git and have shell access to your server, you can also obtain the extension as follows:

cd extensions/
git clone https://gerrit.wikimedia.org/r/p/mediawiki/extensions/Cite.git

Asennus[edit]

Manual installation
  • Download and place the file(s) in a directory called Cite in your extensions/ folder.
  • Add the following code at the bottom of your LocalSettings.php:
wfLoadExtension( 'Cite' );
  • YesY Done - Navigate to Special:Version on your wiki to verify that the extension is successfully installed.

To users running MediaWiki 1.24 or earlier:

The instructions above describe the new way of installing extensions using wfLoadExtension(), since MediaWiki 1.25. If you need to install this extension in earlier versions, instead of wfLoadExtension( 'Cite' );, you need to use:

require_once "$IP/extensions/Cite/Cite.php";

Usage[edit]

The basic concept of the <ref> tag is that it inserts the text enclosed by the ref tags as a footnote in a designated section, which you indicate with the placeholder tag <references />. This format cannot be used interchangeably with the older format — you must pick one or the other.

Additional placeholder tags <references /> can be inserted in the text, and all <ref> tags up to that point will be inserted there.

If you forget to include <references /> in the article, the footnotes will not disappear, but the references will be displayed at the end of the page.

This page itself uses footnotes, such as the one at the end of this sentence.[note 1] If you view the source of this page by clicking "Edit this page", you can see a working example of footnotes.

Wikitext Rendering
The Sun is pretty big.<ref>E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.</ref> The Moon, however, is not so big.<ref>''R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 46 (April 1978): 44-6.</ref>

==Notes==
<references />

The Sun is pretty big.[1] The Moon, however, is not so big.[2]

Notes
  1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.
  2. R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 46 (April 1978): 44-6.

Multiple uses of the same footnote[edit]

To give a footnote a unique identifier, use <ref name="name">. You can then refer to the same footnote again by using a ref tag with the same name. The text inside the second tag doesn't matter, because the text already exists in the first reference. You can either copy the whole footnote, or you can use a terminated empty ref tag that looks like this: <ref name="name" />. The quotes are not required (but still correct) if the name contains no embedded spaces. The space before the closing "/" may be omitted.

In the following example, the same source is cited three times.


Wikitext Result
This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.<ref name="multiple">Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.</ref>

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source.<ref name="multiple" /> Any reused tag should not contain extra content, that will spawn an error. Only use empty tags in this role.

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end. Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.<ref name="multiple" />

==Notes==
<references />
This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.[1]

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source.[1] Any reused tag should not contain extra content, that will spawn an error. Only use empty tags in this role.

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end. Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.[1]

Notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.

Note Note: Note that identifiers used in the name attribute require alphabetic characters; solely relying on numerals will generate an error message.

Merging two texts into a single reference[edit]

A typical wikisource issue is, how to merge into one reference texts split into different pages. This can be done using a <ref name="name"> tag for the first part of the reference, and tagging the following parts into different pages with a tag <ref follow="name">.

Here an example, deriving the text used into previous section:

Wikitext Rendering
This is an example of merging multiple texts into the same footnote.<ref name="main">Remember that all the texts will be included into the reference containing the ''name='' attribute.<br /></ref>

<ref follow="main">Simply include the text to be merged into the first <ref name="main"> reference with a tag <ref follow="name"><br />This paragraph is included into a similar tag and it will be merged into the reference in former paragraph.</ref>


==References==
<references/>

This is an example of merging multiple texts into the same footnote.[1]


References
  1. Remember that all the texts will be included into the reference containing the name= attribute.
    Simply include the text to be merged into the first <ref name="name"> reference with a tag <ref follow="name">
    This paragraph is included into a similar tag and it will be merged into the reference in former paragraph.

When using this syntax into Page: namespace, take care that the ref follow part of the footnote is transcluded too into the same ns0 page, where the first part of footnote is transcluded. Use appropriately section tags to get this result. To also remind users that reference names should not solely be numbers, eg. <ref name="p32"> and <ref follow="p32">.

The <references /> tag[edit]

The <references /> tag inserts the text of all the citations which have defined in <ref> tags up to that point in the page. For example, based on the citations above, there should be reference for the note group.

Wikitext Result
<references group="note"/>
  1. This footnote is used as an example in the "How to use" section.

In some language editions of Wikipedia, long reference lists may be placed using the template {{Reflist}}, which incorporates <references />. It provides an optional parameter to display the reference list in multiple columns. For instance, the English, Hindi and Interlingua Wikipedias use the css selector references-small to make the reference text smaller than normal text.

If a page includes more than one <references /> list, each list includes the <ref> tags defined after the previous references list. If these references lists are produced by templates, each one lists the ref tags defined before the first references list, and there is an error message saying that there is a ref tag but not a references list.

Grouped references[edit]

This may be disabled by $wgAllowCiteGroups = false; if desired.

The following example generates separate reference lists for citations and miscellaneous footnotes:

Wikitext Result
According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big <ref>E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.</ref> In fact, it is very big <ref group="footnotes"> Take their word for it. Don't look directly at the sun!</ref>

==Notes==
<references group="footnotes" />

==References==
<references />
According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big [1] In fact, it is very big [footnotes 1]
Notes
  1. Take their word for it. Don't look directly at the sun!
References
  1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.

The anonymous group works as before, while references destined for the named group will only show up in the designated <references /> element.

Separating references from text[edit]

In-text references make it easy to copy the text to another page; on the other hand, they make it hard to read. References containing a lot of data, quotes or elaborate citation templates can make up a significantly larger fraction of the source than the text that will actually be visible. To avoid this, recent versions of the extension allow moving some or all of the references into the <references /> section, to the place where they will actually appear to the reader.

Wikitext Result
According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big.<ref name="miller" /> The Moon, however, is not so big.<ref name="smith" />

==Notes==
<references>
<ref name="miller">E. Miller, ''The Sun'', (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.</ref>
<ref name="smith">R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", ''Scientific American'', 46 (April 1978): 44-6.</ref>
</references>
According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big.[1] The Moon, however, is not so big.[2]
Notes
  1. E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.
  2. R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 46 (April 1978): 44-6.

Thus, the code above will have the same output as the first example above, although the numbering and order of the references will not in general be the same.

Substitution and embedded parser functions[edit]

Since <ref> is parsed before substitution (i.e., subst:) or parser functions, e.g., {{#if:}}, those will not work inside of citation references. Instead, you have to use the magic word {{#tag:}}.

Non-working example Working example
Foo<ref name="resource">Content that can include subst: and parser functions like {{#if:}} and {{PAGENAME}}</ref> bar baz…
Foo{{#tag:ref|Content that can include subst: and parser functions like {{#if:}} and {{PAGENAME}}|name="resource"}} bar baz…

At this time, there is no way to create an "empty" tag, i.e., <ref name="resource" />, without triggering Cite's complaint about empty content. The workaround is to simply redefine the full tag each time you use this feature. Since such usage is likely limited to templates or other semi-automated process, this may not be too onerous. Bookmarklet example for Cite web:

Wikitext Result
Foo{{#tag:ref|{{cite web|url= |title= |author= |date= |accessdate={{subst:#time:Y-m-d|now}}}}}} bar baz…
<references />
Foo[1] bar baz…
  1. Template:Cite web


Customization[edit]

The format of the output of <ref> and <references> is almost completely customizable through MediaWiki messages, that can be modified, for example, through the MediaWiki namespace depending on the configuration of the wiki.

For a list of messages that control the output of <ref> and <references> and the values, if any, that are passed to them ($1, $2, $3 ...), see here for an up-to-date listing of their default contents.

Incomplete list
  • cite_reference_link_key_with_num
    1. key
    2. num
  • cite_reference_link_prefix
  • cite_reference_link_suffix
  • cite_references_link_prefix
  • cite_references_link_suffix
  • cite_reference_link
    1. ref ID
    2. backlink ID
    3. count to display
  • cite_references_link_one
    • Used to format the source list that <references /> outputs, it configures 3 things: the backlink ID, the ref ID, and text of note.
    1. backlink ID - used for creating the number order of the source list.
    2. ref ID - used to link back to the actual reference in the text, this is where you can configure the <bold>^</bold> symbol
    3. text of note - text used above describing the source info
  • cite_references_link_many
    1. backlink ID
    2. list of links
    3. text of note
  • cite_references_link_many_format
    1. ref ID
    2. numeric value to use as a backlink
    3. custom value (as defined in cite_references_link_many_format_backlink_labels to use as a backlink)
  • cite_references_link_many_format_backlink_labels
  • cite_references_link_many_sep
  • cite_references_link_many_and
  • cite_references_prefix
  • cite_references_suffix

Set references to use ^ and letters[edit]

To replace the default uparrow (↑) with caret (^), modify the following system messages. All of these pages can be found on Special:Allmessages.

MediaWiki:Cite references link one
From To
<li id="$1">[[#$2|↑]] $3</li>
<li id="$1">[[#$2|^]] $3</li>
MediaWiki:Cite references link many
From To
<li id="$1">↑ $2 $3</li>
<li id="$1">^ $2 $3</li>


MediaWiki:Cite references link many format

Putting $3 between the <sup> </sup> tags changes the links from 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 to a, b, c etc…

From To
[[#$1|<sup>$2</sup>]]
[[#$1|<sup>$3</sup>]]

Searching for these 3 pages for the first time will result in no matches. Simply click "Create this page" to edit the code. The changes will not show up until a page with references is rebuilt.

Set reference and reference number highlighting[edit]

Note Note: Starting with MW 1.26 the selectors for highlighting are now incorporated into Cite/modules/ext.cite.css. Thus the CSS code below no longer needs to be added manually.

Add the following code to the MediaWiki:Common.css page.

/* make the Cite extension list of references look smaller and highlight clicked reference in blue */
ol.references { font-size: 90%; }
ol.references li:target { background-color: #ddeeff; }
sup.reference:target { background-color: #ddeeff; }

API[edit]

An API is available when correctly configured by the following.

$wgCiteCacheRawReferencesOnParse = true;
$wgCiteStoreReferencesData = true;

a Raw JSON for a given page will now be accessible via:

/wiki/Special:ApiSandbox?useformat=desktop#action=query&format=json&prop=references&titles=Doctor+Who

Note Note: You will need to purge existing pages for this to become available.

Katso myös[edit]