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Esta página precisa ser traduzida para português integralmente.

Esta página fornece uma documentação geral válida para todas as instalações MediaWiki que usam a extensão. Para usar este recurso veja na Wikipedia w:Wikipedia:Footnotes. Esta página também inclui muitos exemplos.

Cite.php é uma Cite extensão que adiciona dois "parser hooks" ao MediaWiki, <ref> e <references>; que funcionarão juntas adicionando citações às páginas.

Onde fazer o download[edit]

Necessário por Cite.php ou em outro caso obter-se-á uma página em branco!

Atenção! Cite.i18n.php conte´m certos caracteres que deverão ser convertidos para ? quando você clicar no link acima. Para prevenir isso, clique com o botão direito e selecione Salvar como....


Esta versão requer pelo menos Mediawiki 1.6x.

Como instalar[edit]

  1. Localize os arquivos de extensão Cite.php e Cite.i18n.php em um subdiretório Cite dentro de seu diretório de extensões/
  1. Adicione a seguinte linha a LocalSettings.php: require_once( "{$IP}/extensions/Cite/Cite.php" );

Nota: A linha require_once() necessita ser localizada antes da chamada para incluir DefaultSettings.php.

Como usar[edit]

O conceito básico da tag <ref> é que ela insere o texto delimitado pelas tags ref como um nota de rodapé numa determinada seção, o que você indica com a placeholder tag <references/>. O novo formato não pode ser usado intercanbiavelmente com o antigo formato - você deve escolher entre um e outro.

Se você esquecer de incluir <references/> no final do artigo, nenhuma das notas de rodapé aparecerão.

Esta página mesmo usa notas de rodapé, tais como uma ao final deste parágrafo. [1] Se você visualizar o fonte desta página clicando "Esditar esta página", você poderá ver um exemplo funcional de notas de rodapé.


According to scientists, the Sun is pretty big.<ref>E. Miller, The Sun, (New York: Academic Press, 2005), 23-5.</ref>

The Moon, however, is not so big.<ref>R. Smith, "Size of the Moon", Scientific American, 46 (April 1978): 44-6.</ref>


Múltiplos usos da mesma nota de rodapé[edit]

Para dar a uma nota de rodapé um indetificador único, use <ref name="name">. Você pode então referir-se à mesma nota de rodapé novamente usando uma tag ref com o mesmo nome. O texto dentro da secunda tag não não é utilizado na nota de rodapé, por que o texto já existe na primeira referência. Entretanto você pode copiar a nota de rodapé inteira, ou você pode usar uma tagref tag vazia como esta: <ref name="name"/>.

No exemplo seguinte, a mesma fonte é citada três vezes.

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.<ref name="multiple">Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used.</ref>

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, if different statements come from the same source.<ref name="multiple">This text is superfluous, and won't show up anywhere. We may as well just use an empty tag.</ref>

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end. Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.<ref name="multiple" />


O texto acima fornece o seguinte resultado no artigo (veja também Notes section a seguir):

This is an example of multiple references to the same footnote.[2]

Such references are particularly useful when citing sources, when different statements come from the same source.[2]

A concise way to make multiple references is to use empty ref tags, which have a slash at the end. Although this may reduce redundant work, please be aware that if a future editor removes the first reference, this will result in the loss of all references using the empty ref tags.[2]


Localizar <references/> insere o texto completo de todas as citações pendentes na seqüência definida por <ref>, em qualquer lugar da página. Por exemplo, baseado nas citações acima, o código:


will yield:

  1. Esta nota de rodapé é usada como um exemplo na seção "Como usar".
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Remember that when you refer to the same footnote multiple times, the text from the first reference is used. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "multiple" defined multiple times with different content

On Wikipedia, references are sometimes made smaller than normal text, using the code:

<div class="references-small">


The format of the output of <ref> and <references> is almost completely customizable through MediaWiki messages, that can be modified, for example, through the MediaWiki namespace depending on the configuration of the wiki.

For a list of messages that control the output of <ref> and <references> and the values, if any, that are passed to them ($1, $2, $3 ...), see the code in CVS for an up-to-date listing of their default contents.

  • cite_reference_link_key_with_num
    1. key
    2. num
  • cite_reference_link_prefix
  • cite_reference_link_suffix
  • cite_references_link_prefix
  • cite_references_link_suffix
  • cite_reference_link
    1. ref ID
    2. backlink ID
    3. count to display
  • cite_references_link_one
    • Used to format the source list that <references /> outputs, it configures 3 things: the backlink ID, the ref ID, and text of note.
    1. backlink ID - used for creating the number order of the source list.
    2. ref ID - used to link back to the actual reference in the text, this is where you can configure the <bold>^</bold> symbol
    3. text of note - text used above describing the source info
  • cite_references_link_many
    1. backlink ID
    2. list of links
    3. text of note
  • cite_references_link_many_format
    1. ref ID
    2. numeric value to use as a backlink
    3. custom value (as defined in cite_references_link_many_format_backlink_labels to use as a backlink)
  • cite_references_link_many_format_backlink_labels
  • cite_references_link_many_sep
  • cite_references_link_many_and
  • cite_references_prefix
  • cite_references_suffix

Set references to use ^ and letters like Wikipedia[edit]

In file Cite.i18n.php starting at about line 47,

'cite_references_link_one' => '<li id="$1">[[#$2|^]] $3</li>', 
'cite_references_link_many' => '<li id="$1">^ $2 $3</li>', 
'cite_references_link_many_format' => '[[#$1|<sup>$3</sup>]]',

The ^ replaces the up arrows and putting $3 in the last line between the sup /sup tags fixes the links w/ a b c... vice 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, etc...


Current problems[edit]

It doesn't work with version 1.6.8! I eventually got cite.php working with "13660" but not "13826" versions. My error messages appeared at the top of the page
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /****/wiki/extensions/Cite.i18n.php:399) in /****/OutputPage.php on line 575
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /****/wiki/extensions/Cite.i18n.php:399) in /****/wiki/includes/OutputPage.php on line 576

??? appears in rendered pages instead of ↑
Using <ref> in templates breaks numbering
Issue with MediaWiki regarding in what order things are parsed
Using <ref> within a template will create correctly numbered reference mark but it will be missing from the output of a <reference /> on the calling page. (example)
It's impossible to pass template arguments to <ref>, e.g. <ref name={{{1}}}>
Issue with MediaWiki, see bug 4529
The citation links generated by <ref> and the backlinks generated by <references> have an empty title attribute (<a href="..." title="">...)
Issue with MediaWiki, not this extension. MediaWiki will generate output like <a href="#foo" title="">bar</a> when given input like [[#foo|bar]]
Missing name= anchors for backwards compatibility (5567)
The generated <a href="#_note-n"> links should have a name="_ref-n".
The generated <a href="#_ref-n"> links should have a name="_note-n".
This currently seems to be working. — 17:02, 22 July 2006 (UTC)
Commenting out <ref> with HTML comments <--…--> hides the citation but the reference still appears on the list
This would appear to be a parser error…
cite.php is not compatible with ParserFunctions
While the generated link can be excluded with «#ifexist:», the reference still appears in the output of a <reference />.
Template substitution misrenders inside <ref> tag.
Contents of non-first named <ref> are not rendered, even if all prior tags with same name are empty.
Causes v1.9.2's Specialːversion page to go blank. Seems this causes the problem
'author' => 'Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason',
Changing it to this fixes it (apologies if I've 'translated' it wrong)
'author' => 'Evar Arnfjoro Bjarmason',
--ChuckMcB 21:23, 12 March 2007 (UTC)


The major criticism regarding Cite.php is that it renders the editing of references much more tedious. Moreover, because many casual Wikipedia users are not familar with the cryptic Wikitext tags that they find with the use of Cite.php, it is likely that the net effect of Cite.php is often to deter new users from making edits to reference sections. Although Wikipedia supposedly got its name from the Hawaiian word "wiki-wiki", meaning "quick-quick", Cite.php is arguably neither quick nor easy for the average Wikipedia user.

A possible solution would be to have the actual reference section contain all of the references with given names, then throughout the article, simply reference by name, instead of the full citation. This would also reduce confusion concerning multiple uses of a reference having different text, but only showing the first instance (causing confusion with sections are shifted around, the displayed reference might change, while the text hasn't). I.e.:
Some text that needs a ref.{{ref|foo}} 
  Another sentence that uses a ref,{{ref|bar}} 
  followed by another usage of the first ref.{{ref|foo}}
Using cite.php makes citing page numbers harder. Each reference usually cites a different page of the book/journal/article, but there is no way to indicate a different page number when using a self-closing tag. As such, all <ref name="xyz" /> simply refer to the work as a whole, rather than to a specific page number in the work. Perhaps a future revision of cite.php could allow a page number argument to be passed to the reference like so <ref name="xyz" page="42-43" />. This would dramatically increase the reputability of the citations, because they could then be checked/verified, and the citations would be a more useful resource.
  {{ref|foo|Text of reference}}
  {{ref|bar|A difference reference}} }}
Although, this would require two passes by the parser, it would greatly simplify the process of sourcing. I.e. if I am adding something to an article and want to use a source that I know is already cited, I have to dig through the text of the article to find where it is used, (which can be a major pain in large articles, esp. ones which have a lot of references) instead of just glancing at the code for the references section and finding the name.

Another criticism is that, unlike Footnotes3, it is currently impossible to separate bibliographic information from article copy.

However, at least one editor,, has found it incredibly useful in splitting articles and shifting text with footnotes around the article. Before, a paragraph with a footnote needed to be moved, and multiple footnotes in the Notes section shifted. This was very difficult to do. With Cite.php, reorganising text and splitting articles is considerably easier.

Past problems[edit]

The extension didn't generate id attributes that could be uniformly styled with CSS2 attribute selectors
Issue in Cite.php, see bug 4579
Using multibyte characters, colons, spaces and other values that need to be encoded according to the HTML spec breaks internal links
Issue with MediaWiki, not this extension, see bug 4461.
Using <ref> in image captions breaks the XHTML output
Issue with MediaWiki, not this extension, see bug 1887.

Comparing ref/note style and Cite.php style[edit]

They are actually very similar.

  • To make a single use footnote:
    • Ref/note
      1. {{ref|foo}} at the in-text place.
      2. # {{note|foo}} text of note at the proper place in the Notes list.
    • Cite.php
      1. <ref>text of note</ref> at the in-text place.
      2. (Only needed once per article)<references/> under the Notes heading.
  • To make a multiple use footnote:
    • Ref/note
      • With strict ref/note style this was impossible, but a number of alternative forms had been created, for the details of which, see the appropriate pages.
    • Cite.php
      1. <ref name=foo>text of note</ref> at each in-text place.
        1. Alternatively <ref name=foo /> A self-closing tag on every use after name=foo has been defined.
      2. (Only needed once per article)<references/> under the Notes heading; exactly the same as to make a single-use note.
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