Help:模板

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This page is a translated version of the page Help:Templates and the translation is 22% complete.

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如果你要在好幾個頁面有一樣的文字的話,MediaWiki的模板功能就可以開始發揮作用了。 這跟擴充和媒體檔案不同的是,對於模版它沒有主要的規定。模板可以是新編寫的也可以是儲存已經完成的重複的工作,例如:從另一個維基百科的條目輸出然後導入到目標的條目。

建立模板[edit | edit source]

模板其實也是一種wiki 頁面,但它是主要是用於嵌入到其它頁面中。模板的頁面名稱最前面都有Template:——將它分配到該命名空間。除此之外,像其他頁面一樣創建就可以了。

以下為使用模板最簡單的方式。如果你以下面的內容建立了一個名叫"Template:Welcome"的模板:

您好!歡迎來到維基!

你已經建立了你第一個模板!接著請其他的頁面插入下面這個代碼:

{{Welcome}}

當你來到任何其他的頁面時,"您好!歡迎來到維基!"的字樣會代替{{Welcome}}顯示。模版的內容被崁入到其他的頁面,也就是說,模版的內容是完整的在一個頁面裡。

接著,你可以在任何你想要歡迎的人加入: {{Welcome}}。 假設,這個模板被用在100個頁面裡。然後你將這個模板的內容改成:

嗨,您好!歡迎來到這個奇妙的維基。

你重新再檢視任何100個有被使用這個模板的頁面,你會看到新的文字而不是原本的。因為這個模板被嵌入到這些頁面,所以你不用編輯這100個頁面就可以改變他們的內容。

在這個簡單的機制裡。嵌入很多額外的內容以豐富這個機制。製作模板是很有用的!

模板的用法[edit | edit source]

模板除了作為普通的wiki 頁面之外,下面的這些方法也可以使用:

  • {{Name}} — as described above, this link will be dynamically replaced by the current content of [[Template:Name]] at the time the page with the template link is loaded. The link will remain unchanged in the page's source.
  • {{subst:Name}} — when this template link is used, it will be replaced once and for all with the content of [[Template:Name]] as of the time the page with the link is saved: a copy of the contents of [[Template:Name]] will be substituted for the template link. The contents are then a part of the including page, and can be edited normally, separately from the original. Note: changes to the source template page will not be propagated to the page with the template link.
  • {{safesubst:Name}} — this was introduced to allow for substitution that doesn't break transclusion, see w:en:Help:Substitution#The safesubst: modifier.
  • {{msgnw:Name}} includes the template in a form that displays it as raw wiki syntax (the way <nowiki> does) when the page containing it is fetched.

事實上,在一個普通的維基的頁面也可以使用模板,只要指定它在命名空間:

  • {{Template:頁面名稱}} 包含 [[Template:頁面名稱]]
  • {{Foo:頁面名稱}} 包含 [[Foo:頁面名稱]]
  • {{:頁面名稱}} 包含 [[頁面名稱]]
    • {{subst::頁面名稱}} 把它的內容替換成 [[頁面名稱]]

若沒有存在這種空間,否則整個標題會被假定成模板的名稱:

  • {{Foo:欄位}} 包含 [[Template:Foo:欄位]]

參數設定[edit | edit source]

To enrich the mechanism of transclusion, MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to a template when it is transcluded. Parameters allow the template to produce different contents or have different behaviors.

Suppose you wish to insert a little thank you note in the talk page of other users, such as:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for all your effort.
hugs, Me


The thank you note will have a reason (in this case, "all your effort") and a signature ("Me"). Your objective is that any user is able to thank any other user, for any reason whatsoever.

So that the note will look similar everywhere it is used, you can define a template called Template:Thankyou, for example. Although the note should look similar whenever a user thanks another user, its specific contents (i.e. the reason and the signature) will be different. For that reason, you should pass them as parameters. If we ignore the remaining elements to format the box and place the image, the core content of the template will be this:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}

Notice the use of {{{1}}} and {{{2}}}. This is the way to identify, within templates, the parameters that will be passed in when the template is used. Note that, within the template, each parameter is surrounded by three braces: {{{ }}}. This is different from normal template name usage.

When using the template on a page, you fill in the parameter values, separated by a "pipe" character (|). MediaWiki allows parameters to be passed to the template in three ways: Anonymously, Numbered, and Named.

Anonymous parameters[edit | edit source]

To pass in anonymous parameters, list the values of those parameters sequentially:

{{Thankyou|all your effort|Me}}

In this case, the {{Thankyou}} template receives parameters {{{1}}}=all your effort and {{{2}}}=Me, producing:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for all your effort.
hugs, Me


The order in which anonymous parameters are passed in is crucial to its behavior. Reversing the order of the parameters, like so:

{{Thankyou|Me|all your effort}}

would produce this result:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for Me.
hugs, all your effort


Note: identifying parameters by order (with {{{1}}}, etc) works only with anonymous parameters. If your page identifies any parameter by number or name, as shown below, this method will no longer be available to the template which receives them.

Numbered parameters[edit | edit source]

To pass in parameters by number, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|2=Me|1=your friendship}}

This time, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{1}}}=your friendship and {{{2}}}=Me, though they have been supplied in inverse order, and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for your friendship.
hugs, Me


Named parameters[edit | edit source]

The third way of passing parameters is by name, instead of numbers. In this case, the template contents would be changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason}}}.
hugs, {{{signature}}}

Within the template, we use {{{reason}}} and {{{signature}}} to identify each parameter, instead of a number. To pass these parameters by name, identify each parameter when passing it:

{{Thankyou|signature=Me|reason=being who you are}}

In this case, template {{Thankyou}} receives parameters {{{reason}}}=being who you are and {{{signature}}}=Me and produces:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for being who you are.
hugs, Me

The advantage of using named parameters in your template, besides also being flexible in the order parameters can be passed, is that it makes the template code much easier to understand if there are many parameters.

Default values[edit | edit source]

If you transclude a template that expects parameters, but do not provide them, in this way:

{{Thankyou}}

in the numbered parameters example above you would get the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for {{{1}}}.
hugs, {{{2}}}


Since no parameters were passed in, the template presents the parameters themselves, instead of their respective values. In these cases, it may be useful to define default values for the parameters, i.e. values that will be used if no value is passed in. For example, if the template contents are changed to:

'''A little thank you...'''
for {{{reason|everything}}}.
hugs, {{{signature|Me}}}

then {{{reason|everything}}} defines that if no parameter {{{reason}}} is provided, then the value everything will be used. Similarly, {{{signature|Me}}}, defaults parameter {{{signature}}} to value Me. Now, transcluding the template again without passing any parameter, results in the following:

Example sunflower image
A little thank you...
for everything.
hugs, Me


Control template inclusion[edit | edit source]

By default, a template's content is displayed in its entirety, both when viewed directly and when included in another page. However, you can control which parts of a template will be seen and included by the use of the <noinclude> and <includeonly> tags.

Anything between <noinclude> and </noinclude> will be seen only when the template's page is being viewed directly, but not when it is included in another page. This is useful when you want to include text or code in a template that you do not want to propagate to any pages which include it, such as:

  • Category links when categorizing the template itself
  • interlanguage links to similar templates in other languages
  • Explanatory text about how to use the template

Likewise, anything between <includeonly> and </includeonly> will be processed and displayed only when the page is being included, but not when the template page is being viewed directly, and is useful in situations such as:

  • Categorizing pages which include the template. Note: when changing the categories applied by a template in this fashion, the categorization of the pages which include that template may not be updated until some time later: this is handled by the job queue. To force the re-categorization of a particular page, open that page for editing and save it without changes.
  • Ensuring that the template's code is not executed when viewing the template page itself. Typically this is because it expects parameters, and its execution without parameters has an undesired result.

Everything outside <noinclude> and <includeonly> tags is processed and displayed normally; that is, both when the template page is being viewed directly and when the template is included in another page.

Organizing templates[edit | edit source]

For templates to be effective, users need to find them, and find out how to use them.

To find them, users can:

  1. Click Special pages > All pages
  2. In the Namespace: list, choose Template and click Go.

To give usage information, include an example like this one on the template page:

<noinclude>
== Usage ==
Welcome users:
{{Thankyou|reason=your reason|signature=your signature}}
</noinclude>

Then, an editor can simply copy and paste the example to use the template.

Copying from one wiki to another[edit | edit source]

Templates often require CSS or other templates, so users frequently have trouble copying templates from one wiki to another. The steps below should work for most templates.

MediaWiki code[edit | edit source]

If you have import rights (Specifically importupload) on the new wiki:

  1. Go to Special:Export on the original wiki, and download an .xml file with the complete history of all necessary templates, as follows:
    • Enter the name of the template in the big text box, e.g. "Template:Welcome". Pay special attention to capitalization and special characters — if the template name isn't exactly correct, the export may still occur but the .xml file will not have the expected data.
    • Check the box "Include templates".
    • Uncheck the box "Include only the current revision, not the full history".
    • Click "Export".
  2. Go to Special:Import on the new wiki and upload the .xml file.

If you don't have import rights on the new wiki:

  1. Go to the template you want to copy from the original wiki. Go to the edit page, and copy all the wikitext
  2. On the new wiki, go to the page with the same name as the template you copied. Hit create/edit and paste the wikitext you copied. In the edit summary of each template, link to the original page for attribution.
  3. Back in the original wiki at the edit window, below the edit box, look at the list of "Templates used on this page". For each template listed follow these instructions. Also do that for any template used by any of these templates, and so on.

This will copy the entire code necessary, and will suffice for some templates. If it doesn't work also check for red links listed under "Pages transcluded onto the current version of this page:", below the edit box. If there are any repeat the above steps for these as well.

After sucessfully importing the template and all its linked templates from the other wiki, edit it to change customisations to suit your wiki. For example to change a logo, remove redundant categories or red links.

Extensions[edit | edit source]

An extension often used in templates is ParserFunctions. Visit page ParserFunctions and check if any of the functions listed there are used in the templates you've copied. If so, you have to install the ParserFunctions extension. To install it, you'll need system admin access to the server of your MediaWiki installation.

Another dependency that may be used in templates, especially those on Wikipedia, is Lua. Having {{#invoke: }} in template code is a good sign for it. In case it's used, you need to install the Scribunto extension and system admin access is required too. See that page for more instructions about installing and using the extension.

CSS and JavaScript code[edit | edit source]

Besides MediaWiki code, many templates make use of CSS and some rely on JavaScript to work fully. If the copied templates are not behaving as expected, this may be the cause. To copy the required CSS and JavaScript to your wiki you'll normally need to have admin privileges, because you'll be editing system messages in the "MediaWiki:" namespace.

  1. Look for the use of CSS classes (text like class="foobar") in the template text. If those classes appear in "MediaWiki:Common.css" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.css" on the original wiki, copy those classes to "MediaWiki:Common.css" on the new wiki and check if the template is now fine.
  2. If the copied template is still not working as expected, check if there is code in "MediaWiki:Common.js" or "MediaWiki:Monobook.js" on the original wiki. If so, you can try copying it to "MediaWiki:Common.js" on the new wiki. Normally, it is a good idea to only copy code from trusted sources, and first browsing the code to identify and select the parts that are relevant. You may find comments that can serve as clues to identify the functionality of each part.

See also[edit | edit source]